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Full text of "Ficus Elastica"

FICUS ELASTICA: 

ITS NATURAL GROWTH AND ARTIFICIA 

PROPAGATION, 



WITH \ DKSCKiPTK »N 01 II II- 

MI: II !( )li OF 1AIT1M, IIIH THEE AND OF Till: I'IM-il'.AI'ATlON 

OF l'l^ [M HBi-.K lOI' 'HIE MARUT. 



l:V 

M. COVENTRY 
(i f 1.1. i i-.ji-i 1 1 . 




CAU ;U I I'A : 
OI~i ;CE OF Tilt. M FfcKINTfcNDENl OF f ,U V FI'NMF.IVI I'KINTING, INDIA. 

Mr Hi 



i S BANGALORE 
UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Istko[h;ctios: 



CHAI'TKK I. 



Page 



Qs rut Nm'iuh. lii;n»rii '.N'i> Akiiuchi. RKiKonucTios 
"i Fi i is JLiiTIt.*. 

/ — Tit Natttral Growth — 

Distribution .......... 

Climate required ' * ........ 

Description of (lit truo ........ 

Natural nirtlidJ of grotvlli ....... 

! 'luivrgtvimd rout?. ......... 

Aerial ruoif ,.,.,..... 

>i-i-il and fruit .......... 

Ucicript'joii of sct'tlluig on (4trmin.it ion .... 

II. — Artificial Proptigd'iuti— 

(ni Various methods described— 

KcquiK nii-iit ■- of vomit' rubbu pi. ml . . 

1'iopagation by layers ........ 

Do. t!o cuttings .... . . . . 

Do. do. gootics ... . . . . . 

Do- do. seedlings planted in the Forks and on ihu brandies 

of trees ....... 

Do. do. seedlings planted on split .stumps, etc. 
(li) it tprnduct ton In nursery seedling* — 

Collection of seed . 

Preparation o! the nursery , . . 

Do. do. seed-bids ....... 



Shades for the seed beds 
Method of sowing . 
Season for sowing . 
Weeding and watering 
Transplanting 
Season for transplanting 
Forest nurseries 

(c) Planting in the forest — 

Clearance of the lines 
Mounds ■ • 

Planting out . 

[d) Maintenance of the plantation — 

Clearance of the lines 

Replanting vacancies 

Stakes 

Mounds . 

Felling trees between the lines 

Kate of growth 



Page. 
ra 
10 
ii 

t2 

12 

12 



'3 
"4 
M 



16 



CHAPTER II. 

On the Tmtixg ov Kicus elvstica an 
oi' the Rubber i'or Exi 

Clearing the plantation lines 
Clearing the trees of climbers . 
Numbering the trees .... 

Rising " pongs " to the tree 1 ; 

Tools used ...... 

Method of tapping .'.... 

Method- formerly employed 
Occurrence of the latex . ■ . 



D THE 


Preparation 




ORT. 




17 
! 7 


i 




17 
'/ 
IS 
18 
■ 8 

■ 19 







Paob 


Flow of (he latex 




10 


Collection of mat rubber . 




IQ 


Collection of tree rubber . 




20 


Cleaning the rubber 




a© 


Drying the rubber . 




21 


Pressing the rubber . 




21 


Packing the rubber . 




21 


Season for tapping 




21 


Age of tapping 




32 


Interval between tappings 




22 


Outturn of rubber, Charduar 


plantation ...... 


H 


Do. do. Khulsi p! 


intation 


s\ 


Analysis of rubber . 




25 


Do. of bark and leaves 




j£i 


Cost of lapping operations , 




26 


Coal-tarring the ruts 




27 


Measurements of girth and crowns of rubber trees .... 


27 


Hoot tapping 




2; 


Labour employed 





■ V 



N'OTK IJV T11K InM'1XTQK-GkM£KAL OK FORESTS 



J> 



APPENDICES. 
Api'es'dix I.— Height growth in feet ...... 

„ II.— Circumference growth in feet . 

„ III. — Areas, etc. ........ 

., IV. — Area statement , ...... 

V.— Statement showing the outturn of Rubber from the Char- 
duar Rubber plantation ...... 



30 

3« 
ja 



34 



INTRODUCTION 



■"PHESE notes are compiled from the literature available on the subject 
and from personal observation. The writer obtained much in- 
formation from reports prepared by Mr. D. P. Copeland and other 
Forest officers, who from time to time have been connected with the 
Charduar and Khulsi Plantations, and from Mr. M. II. Thompson, 
Deputy Conservator of Forests' Report on the Hukong Valley in Upper 
Burma. 



E, M.COVENTRY FICUS EUSTICA 



PLATE 1. 




PiHllo.-M<n:hl. Di-1'1... TtaiuMon College, RoorkH.' 



.'Jit-., Hiumuiou LHMiruu, m«"v. 

NATURAL RUBBER TREE ABOUT 120 FEET HIGH. 
Thi» tree yielded 80 Ibi. of rubber at one tapping. 



E. M. Coventry, Fllolo. 



NOTES ON FICUS EL 



CHAPTER 1. 

ON NATURAL GROWTH AND ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION. 



T 



(I) THE NATURAL OROWTtl. 

HE FICUS ELASTrCA occurs in suitable localities in the foot 

„. ^ „ hills of the Himalayas from Nepal east- 

Dlstrltwflon. * * 

ward ; it has been found in the Khasia 

Hills up to an elevation of about 3,000 feet and is reported from the 
Hukong and other valleys of Upper Burma up to nearly 5,000 fret above 
sea level. In Assam the trees are found in the greatest number in the 
Darrang and Lakhimpur districts, but large quantities of rubber are 
imported into the Province from Bhutan, the Aka Duffla and Naga 
Hills and from Burma. 

It is found as a dominant tree in the evergreen forests of Assam ; 
the finest specimens in hilly country up to an elevation of 2,500 feet. 
It is not a gregarious tree, but in the Hukong Valley is reported as 
appearing scattered generally through the dense evergreen forests, 
occasionally a family group of four or five trees may be met with, but 
these are very rare indeed and the usual thing is to come across a mature 
tree at a distance of every 200 to 300 yards in the richer forests. 

2. Mr. Thompson writes that the main factor determining the distri- 
bution of this species seems to be excessive 
Climate required. , . . . . *" . 

humidity ol the atmosphere. It appears to 

be able to accommodate itself to many varieties of soil (probably because 
in nature its earlier stages are passed on a host] and to lie indifferent 
generally speaking to large variations in altitude, though growing best in 
Burma at 2,500 to 3,500 feet. The absence of a very high temperature 
would also seem to favour its growth, as the species is unknown in other- 
wise suitable localities in Lower Burma. However, this latter point may 
or may not be correct and very likely the question may be complicated 

H 



2 NOTES ON FICUS ELASTICA. 

by correlation of factors that we are not as yet cognizant of. 
But this much is certain that it is found growing in abundance- on the 
Lounau hills at an altitude of 5,200 feet and is reported from high 
altitudes in the Jan Muii Bun mountains to the east of N'tupusa on the 
north and south watersheds of the Taron river, the higher crests and 
peaks of which are covered with large masses of snow in the winter. 
It does not appear to actually grow in places which are subject to 
snow-falls, but is found in all the damp, deep gorges on the slopes of 
such hills, very often creeping up the latter to considerable altitudes. 

If the tree does not actually grow high up in the mountains, it 
yet must experience severe winter frosts, but it is probable that the in- 
fluence of the latter is modified to a certain extent by the position of 
the seedlings on the stems of their hosts, and they very likely do not 
suffer to the same degree as they would if growing on the surface of 
the soil. 

The trees planted at Shillong, elevation 4,000 feet, died during the 
severe winter of 1904-05, but as on this occasion indigenous trees over 
many- hundreds of square miles were killed by frost this evidence is far 
from conclusive. 

3. A gigantic, evergreen tree (often 100 to 120 feet in height) 

sending down numerous aerial roots from 
Description ol the tree. D . . . 

the branches, it is easily recognised by its 

large glossy leaves and, during the growing season, by the large red 
stipules which surround the leaves and which drop off as the leaves 
unfold. At Charduar the natives distinguish two varieties — Bogi Bor 
ami Shika Bor. The former is affirmed by them to be the better and 
has much larger leaves than the other. 

4. The tree is essentially a light-demanding species and, though an 

evergreen and associated with and growing- 
Natural method of growth. b , , & b 

amongst dense shade-bearers, no tree can 

be more exacting in its demands for light. Wherever it is surrounded 

with dense shade it will be found that this tree, in order to escape from 

it. has grown to enormous heights, in many cases towering head and 

shoulders above every other tree in its vicinity. 

Seedlings grow as a rule in the fork or crevices in the bark of the 

light-foliaged trees (Dalbergia, etc.) at a great height from the ground 

and occasionally on the half-rotten trunks of dead and dying trees in 

places where from windfalls or otherwise clearings have been formed in 



NATfRAr, GROWTH AND ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION. n 

the leaf canopy. The young seedling thus obtains a good start over 
its rivals In the struggle for existence. 

The voung plant remains an epiphyte For years until its aerial amis 
touch the ground: as soon as this takes place, the little epiphyte 
changes rapidly into a vigorous tree, throwing out numerous aerial 
roots which gradually- envelope the tree un which it first began life and 
often kill it. I laving started life so high up, it is able to throw out 
branches which overtop the surrounding trees, and the numerous aerial 
roots which fall from these and establish connection with the ground 
enable it in a few years to dominate the forest growth around it. 

In accordance with its light-demanding character seedlings growing 
on the ground are extremely rare. That they will grow on the ground is, 
however, proved by the seedlings found in tea gardens where the ground 
is kept clear. Also trees which have originated from seed (hat has 
germinated on the ground are said to he not at all rare in the Aka 
Hills. 

5. In iSo_'-93 ;ill( l 'I 1C two previous years attempts were made to 

kill out the suppressed rubber trees in the 
Underground roots. ... , , . , . , 

C harduar plantation by tapping thorn 

heavily. However, on examining the roots it was found that those of 
neighbouring trees had anastomosed, so that the plantation had practi- 
cally become one huge tree. The roots spread out near the surface of 
the ground to a distance of 150 feet or more. Those of '"'goalies " or 
Chinese grafts and cuttings arc rather brittle and snap off, if planting 
is not carefully done. 

6. The vigour of a tree may be ganged by the number of its aerial 

roots, even seedlings .soon establish their 
Aerial roots. . . , , . T 

connection with the ground by numerous 

aerial roots. The aerial roots will anastomose with one another or 

with any part of the trunk or branches with which they may come in 

contact and such a root of one tree may even join on to the branch 

of another. In 1897-98 one of the large aerial roots of a rubber tree 

in the (harduar nursery, which in its descent had anastomosed with 

another aerial root of the parent tree, was severed at its upper end, 

since it did not die this proved that it had completely anastomosed. 

Numerous roots are also put out from the edge of the cuts made in 

the tapping operations and these often establish connection with 

the ground within a year. Also, if aerial roots are inserted in split 

U 2 



, NOTES ON FICUS ELASTICA. 

4 

bamboos filled with earth,, they quickly reach the ground and rapidly 
increase in size. 

7. The seed is contained in a fig-shaped fruit, the size of a pea, 

about 75 seeds, the size of a pinhead, 
being found in one good, sound fig. The 
fruit first begins to form on the trees in March and ripens from May 
onwards to December. On some trees the whole crop ripens and 
falls off by June, but, as a rule, the tree has fruit on it from April to 
December, the figs forming, ripening and falling off during the whole 
of the rainy season. 

8. The embryo appears on the germination of the seed as a seed- 

ling having a pair of opposite cotyledons 
Description of seedHng on ger- . , . , . f . . . 

mutation wl *- n an ent; ire margin, destitute ot incisions 

or appendage of any kind, with the excep- 
tion of the notched or emarginate apex, oval in general outline, green 
in colour and of a glassy smoothness. The second pair of leaves 
shows a tendency to the alternate arrangement on the stem, but appear 
at the same time. Their shape and variation are very different to 
those of the primary leaves, for they have a central midrib and a 
distinctly coarsely crenated margin. The third pair of leaves do not 
appear simultaneously and are distinctly alternate, with a marked 
reddish colour : after this period is passed the plant is easily recog- 
nised. 



(II) ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION. 

(a) Various methods described. 

9. The general conditions for the healthy and rapid growth of the 

Reqolrementi of young rubber young trees of Ficus elastica are : — 
planlt. 

(t) Perfect drainage about its roots and looseness of soil so as to 
admit the air readily, the composition of the soil not so 
far as is known seriously affecting the trees as long as the 
above conditions are fulfilled : but gravel or sand does not 
appear to be suitable since all the caoutchouc collectors 
state that the trees produce much smaller quantities of rubber 
when grown in such soil even in the best localities. 



NATURAL GROWTH AND ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION. 5 

(2} Plenty of light. 

(3) Heat and moisture combined, or what is commonly termed 
a close, steamy atmosphere. 

There seems in short to be no doubt as to what is required to make 
Lhis ficus thrive and this may be summed up in the few words, air, light, 
good drainage about the roots and as much moisture in the air as 
possible. 

The last condition, of course, is very present at t lie foot of mountains 
which is the situation of t'harduar, and this is encouraged by only clear- 
ing lines through the forest at a hundred feet apart and leaving the 
natural vegetation standing between these lines. Another very neces- 
sary requirement to ensure plenty of air and light is the constant clear- 
ing of the dense scrub round the young trees which grows with mar- 
vellous rapidity. The drainage about their roots is ensured by plant- 
ing on mounds. 

It has been asserted that the rubber tree grows equally well on 
high land or low land, in torcst land or grass land, so long as it is 
planted on a mound and its roots are not exposed to the sun ; and 
that it is a surface feeder, but, as soon as its roots appear above 
ground, they must be covered with fresh earth until such lime as the 
tree has formed a sufficient leaf canopy to protect itself. But the 
statement that the tree grows equally well everywhere cannot be 
accepted as correct. In the first place it does not grow well in 
swampy ground, or in places where water stands for a large part of 
the year, eg,, the trees planted on mounds along the Dhekrigaon 
road which is bordered by rice fields have hardly grown at all, though 
planted in 1879-80, and many of them have died. Where the trees are 
in low places, with water on the ground the greater part of the year, 
it does not suit them even though they have been planted on mounds. 
They then become, sickly and will probably die in a few years. 
Floods have occasionally killed all the seedlings in the nurseries. 

In the second place rubber does not appear to grow well in grass 
lands where there are no trees. Most of compartment 18 consists of 
land of this description and the plants here are very sickly and have 
hardly grown at ail and probably will not come to anything. Many 
have died. This may be due to absence of shade ; but the composi- 
tion of the soil of such lands is probably unsuitable to the growth 
of trees. 



6 NOTES ON FICUS ELASTICA. 

10. Experiments made in 1897-98 showed that rubber can be easily 
Propagation by layers. grown in this way. 

11. The tree can readily also be propagated from cuttings if only 

perfectly ripe young branches or shoots are 
used, but the trees raised from cuttings do 
not appear to throw out aerial roots, and, as the future yield of the tree 
probably depends on the number of these roots, it is questionable 
whether trees raised from cuttings should be used except where 
required for shade as in an avenue. In the Charduar plantation pro- 
pagation by cuttings was given up very early, that is after 1876, the 
plantation having been commenced in 1873. 

The best time for making cuttings in Assam is, no doubt, from the 
middle of January to the end of May, it depends on the rainfall during 
the latter three months which of the cuttings will do best: those made 
in 1874 after May failed almost entirely. The earlier in the season 
before the trees from which th: cuttings are obtained have started 
growth the better chance the cuttings have of success. At this time 
young terminal shoots will grow well whilst, after the trees from which 
the cuttings are taken have commenced growth, which happens about 
the end of January, the lower, somewhat harder portion of the young 
branches succeeds better than the soft terminal shoots. Only young 
and vigorous branches from lopped trees are used, and they are cut 
from one to two feet in length and are put three inches in the ground. 
All scrubby branches from old trees almost invariably fail. The 
branches of young trees succeed better than those of lopped trees. 

In 1875 tne preparation of cuttings was begun at the end of 
January and continued till the middle of March. They were planted 
on raised beds. Artificial shading of grass was employed, the shades 
being removed every afternoon and not replaced until about 9 a.m. 
In the middle of March rain fell and continued for some time when 
opportunity was taken advantage to harden off the cuttings and to 
remove the artificial shading. Until rain fell all were watered twice a 
day. Whilst cuttings form at once larger plants and grow faster during 
the first year or two, seedlings are hardier and stand transplanting 
better than cuttings. It appears to be inadvisable to transplant 
cuttings till they are two years old. Cuttings from vigorous top- 
shoots cut and put in the ground before they have started new 
growth in December and January make roots readily. 



Natural growth aNd artificial propagation. ■} 

In 1895 large rutting, twelve feet in length, were used. All the 
green parts were cut off and they were fixed two to three feet in I he 
ground. They were planted on mounds and tied to stakes. A few 
were planted in March after heavy rain, as an experiment, and the 
remainder in May and June. Of 21 cuttings planted in March to fill up 
vacancies one has died, or 5 per cent. : of 82 planted after the rains 
had well set in, J3 died, or 28 per cent. Several cuttings were planted 
in May, before the rains began, and whilst it was very hot. but these 
nearly all died. From the above it would appear best to plant cuttings 
before the growing season commences, that is before the end of March. 

12. Gootics or Chinese grafts have been used since 1903-03 for 

filling up blanks in the plantation. To 
Qooitts. ,■ ■ , , 

prepare gootics, vigorous young branches 

1 J to 20 feet long are selected, those still covered with red bark 

probably giving the best results, A strip of bark 3 to 8 inches wide 

is then removed, care Wing taken not to injure the wood, at the point 

where the roots arc wanted, and this should be at least q inches above 

where it is proposed to saw off the branch in order to allow the gootie 

to be firmly fixed in the mound. Al the point in the branch where the 

bark has been removed a large lump of wet 1 lay, mixed with eovvduiig, is 

tied on with a piece of gunny cloth and Kepi wer till such time as small 

root-lets appear through the cloth when the gootie is ready for planting 

out. During the rains the roots appear in about threr: weeks to a 

month's t imc, and in Assam the best time for preparing this form of graft 

is April and May; they should be planted out during May and June. 

The gootics should be planted at least jJ feel to 3 feet deep in the 

mound and should be tied to slakes as in the case of seedlings. It is 

not yet known whether gootics are likely to give successful results, 

Out of ft 3 gootics carefully planted in compartment i2,C. in the: 

rains of 1304, si died, or 25 per cent., while those gootics planted in 

other compartments have mostly failed. Thev usually dry off at the 

top and consequently pruning of the ends of their branches might have 

good effects. 

13. In imitation of the natural method of growth seedlings have 
been planted on (lie branches of trees 

JttTJ3£t*& imU hut the s rowUi is ™r * l ™ «■« *• ™ta 

reach the ground after a number of years ; 
and this method of cultivation has now Wen abandoned. Kxp< riments 



g NOTES ON FICUS ELASTICA. 

were started in 1875 to plant the young trees in strongly made 

cane baskets and to place these in the forks of trees. Only 

seedlings were used for this mode of planting, because they form thick 

tuberous roots and thus are more fit to cope with the comparative 

dryness to which they are exposed in the tops of trees in the dry 

season. The first of these was planted on January 25th in trees near 

the nurseries and up till the 21st April they looked everything that 

could be desired ; in all 400 plants were put out, but in May 1905 only one 

survived. It appears that in the three years following the planting the 

seedlings either remained stationary or made one or two leaves only, which 

is attributed to the want of moisture in the soil provided in the baskets 

and also to shade from above which is necessary in order to retain some 

moisture in the soil. Thus on the one hand to prevent excessive 

evaporation shade is required and on the other the presence of shade is 

prohibitive to the growth of the seedlings. The cost of stocking the 

plantation by this method amounted to about Rs. 5 per acre, but, as 

before noted, the system has been abandoned as unsuitable. 

14. Before the system of planting on mounds was established, 

_, „ „ seedlings were planted experimentally on 

Planting on spill stumps, etc. ,. , „ r t-. 

split or hollow stumps of trees. I he 

planting on split stumps of trees and in earthenware tubes placed 
on stumps proved very successful in low situations, counteracting the 
effects of excessive moisture ; but vigorous growth was not attained 
without the admission of light. The trees planted on low split stumps, 
or in earthenware cylinders placed on stumps or on piles of wood 
put crossways and mixed with earth, or on small mounds of 
earth about 2 — 3 feet in height all succeeded well in the lines cleared 
through the forest, and this being so all plants are now planted on 
mounds of earth, raised about 3 feet above the ground, this being 
found to be the most economical way of working. In Upper Burma 
experiments have been made to propagate the species by placing 
cuttings or seedlings in hollow teak stumps, which are previously filled 
with earth, in moist or evergreen forests, and they are found to grow 
vigorously and are out of the reach of animals. It has been found that 
better results are obtained from the planting of young, well-rooted 
seedlings than of cuttings. Seedlings are, however, difficult to 
obtain and are expensive, the Kachins who supply them being 
paid about twelve annas to one rupee a plant. Several hundred 



NATURAL GROWTH AND AKI'IKICIAL PROPAGATION. g 

seedlings have been planted out and in 1904 were reported to be 
growing vigorously. 

(b) Reproduction by nursery seedlings. 

15. Seed should be collected from trees over 20 years old, but not 

over-mature, as experience has shown that 
CoUeclion of seed. , ,, , , 

seed collected irom younger trees will not 

germinate. It is advisable to gather seed from beneath the trees when 
the figs are ripe and birds have begun to feed on them. The bird 
droppings and ripe figs found on the ground should be swept up daily, 
since the seed that has passed through the alimentary canals of birds 
germinates best. The seeds thus collected may, however, contain other 
varieties of fig which ripen at the same time, but very soon after germi- 
nation different varieties are easily recognised and can be weeded out. 
The sooner after collection the seed is sown the better, but if seed has 
to ijr kept, the figs should be carefully dried and mixed with pounded 
charcoal, which preserves it for many months. 

16. A site should be chosen for a nursery where the soil is good and 

there is some shelter, and a well or stream 
Preparation of the nursery. , , , 

should be near so that the plants can be 

watered. The land selected should be ploughed up and allowed to lie 

fallow for some time to prevent the growth of moss, etc. It should then 

be watered and levelled, all stumps and roots being removed, and 

finally drained and fenced. The seed beds should then be prepared 

while the rest of the nursery is marked off into beds to receive the 

transplants. All the beds should be raised one foot, having small paths 

between them, and tor the seed beds good soil containing vegetable 

matter should be' brought in. 

17. To prevent the soil of the seed-beds being washed away, small 

, pet's are driven into the ground along the 

Preparation of the seed-beds. lo , . ,,, . , ■ , 

outer edge ol each bed against which some 

reeds are tied horizontally and thatching grass is then put on the inside 

of the reeds. The soil should be pulverised and passed through selves 

and levelled, then 3 inches of charcoal dust should be spread over the 

beds and mixed up with the soil by hand. The beds are then smoothi <l 

down and are ready for sowing. Light sandy soil is the most suitable 

for seed beds : if the soil is stiff, charcoal-dust or river-sand should be 



I NOTES ON FlCUS ELASTIt'A. 

mixed with it to make it porous and prevent caking. The seed beds 

must never be allowed to get dry. 

18. Light, movable shades are put up over the seed-beds to intercept 

the direct rays of the sun and to prevent 
Shades lor the seed-beds. , , . . , , . , 

the seed being washed away by rain ; they 

are removed at night and during cloudy weather. They may be made 

of thatching grass or bamboo mats. When planting operations were 

started, it was found during the first few years that seedlings died in 

large numbers, and in 1877-78 a side-shade, 7 feet high, was put up 

vertically along the Southern edge of the beds, and it was noticed that 

wherever the sun got at the seedlings over the top of the shade, they 

were all killed. It is believed therefore that shade is absolutely necessary 

for the young seedlings for some time after germination. It was also 

found by experience that seedlings and cuttings were very susceptible 

to injury from too much shade or drip from the trees left in the nursery 

causing excessive moisture about their roots, and that artificial shade 

over the seed-beds caused drip and excessive moisture which proved 

fatal to many seedlings. Consequently, the seed-beds must not be 

allowed to become too damp, but on the other hand the seedlings must 

be protected from the sun. 

19. At present seed is. sown as follows :— For a seed-bed, 4o'x3i', 

two to three seers of broken figs. 10 seers 
Method of Bowing. f ° 

of ash and 20 seers oi vegetable loam or 

good soil are well mixed, about a pint of kerosine oil being added 

to prevent ants and other insects carrying off the seed. This mixture 

is spread evenly over the bed and then lightly tamped down and 

watered. Such a bed should yield with good germination 2,000 

seedlings and should be sufficient for planting up 100 acres of rubber. 

The figs are broken between the hands and as the seed is very minute, 

the particles of the fruit are left with the seed and sown with it, no 

attempt being made to clean the seed by separating the pulverised 

fragments of the figs. 

In 1874-75, 30 seers of fruit were sown in three different ways : — 

1st. — On beds covered with broken bricks, half of which was sown 
with entire figs and the other half with the fruit broken up 
or rubbed into powder between the hands. 

2nd. — Sown like the above, but on broken charcoal. 

iref. — Sown like the above, but on earth onlv. 



NATURAL GROWTH AND ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION. , i 

The seed was sown in the middle of January and germinated in the 
middle of April. Germination took place best on the broken bricks, 
nest best on the charcoal and least on the earth. When the rains set 
in heavilv, the seedlings on the charcoal stood it best, (hose on the 
broken bricks next, whilst those on the soil nearly all perished. These 
beds were not shaded. There was no difference in the germination ol 
tin- seed when the whole fruit had been sown and the fruit hail been 
crushed, except that in the former case the seedlings were very much 
crowded. 

A similar experiment is described in Gamble's " Manual of Indian 
Timbers." In this case the germination was best on garden soil, nrxt 
best on the broken bricks, and last, though still very good on the 
charcoal. Here, however, the beds were irrigated and shaded. 

Jn 1877-78 another experiment was made. Seed was sown on 33 
beds. Of the above beds, one was prepared with earth only, without 
charcoal, and produced 3,011 seedlings. Jo beds were prepared with 
rather coarsely' broken charcoal, and the latter but slightly mixed with 
the soil. These produced an average of 707 seedlings to each bed: 12 
Ix-ds were prepared with very finely-broken charcoal well worked into 
the soil and produced an average of 1,864 seedlings on each bed. The 
beds were shaded. 

In 1S71J-S0 30 beds were prepared: 5 consisting of plain earth 
well dug and cleared of roots and weeds: 18 others where the soil was 
mixed with charcoal as heretofore: and in the remaining beds manure 
was used. 

Whilst on the beds of plain earth the weeds and moss came up 
very profusely, those in which charcoal was used were comparatively 
free from either weeds or moss, and on those beds where manure has 
been used, the number of plants that came up was very much less than 
on the other beds, but the seedlings looked more vigorous. 

In 1 89G-Q7 lime was mixed with the soil of one of the beds. In 
this bed after germination the seedlings pushed far ahead and were (it 
for pricking out long before the others. This experiment does not 
appear to have Iieen repeated. 

jo. Germination lakes place from the end of April to the end of 

the rains. Seed sown between October 
Season for sowhg. , , , 

and January requires daily watering and 

screening from the sun and will not germinate before the end of April 



12 NOTES ON F1CUS ELAST1CA. 

or the beginning of May, but seed sown at any time during the rains 
will germinate in a few days, from five days to a fortnight. It follows 
that the best time for sowing seed is during the rains, that is, from June to 
September. Seed might be sown in May, but the weather is generally 
too hot then. Previous to 1897 seed was sown in the cold weather 
months, but from that year it has been sown during the rains. In 
that year seed was sown weekly during the rains. After September 
27th very few seeds germinated, and after October 4th germination 
ceased. It has, however, been found at Charduar that a good deal 
of the seed germinates in the following, or even the second, year after 
sowing. 

21. The seed-beds must be kept clear of weeds and watered when 

„, „ , , , necessary, as they must never be allowed 

Weeding and watering. , . / 

to become quite dry. 

22. When the seedlings are one to two inches high in the seed-beds 

they should be transplanted into nursery- 
Transplantiog. , , , . . , . c 

beds and put out in lines about a foot from 

each other. The nursery-beds should be well raised and drained, but 

the soil need not be so carefully prepared as for the seed-beds. Here 

the plants are kept till the following rains, when they are dug up 

and taken to stockaded nurseries in the forest, and put out 5' X 5' on 

raised mounds where they remain until they are large enough to plant 

out. 

About ten days or a fortnight before the transplanting takes place 

the shades should be removed from the seed-beds, so that the seedlings 

may be hardened off. If this is not done, the seedlings are liable to be 

killed by the sudden exposure. 

23. When the plantation was started and during the first ten years, 

transplanting; appears to have been done in 

Season for transplanting. \ tl c q , c 

the cold weather. I he report of 1075-70 

states that the best time lor transplanting appears to be November and 

December, before the winter rains. In the following year it was thought 

that October was the best month. But experiments made in 18/8-79 

showed that transplanting can be clone at any time of the year, provided 

that ordinary care is exercised and the roots of the plants are not 

damaged. During dry weather watering would be necessary. In this 

year twelve plants were put out each month and they all did equally 

well. At present transplanting is done during the rains, and this is 



NATURAL GROWTH AND ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION. 13 

necessary when large plants, 10 — 12 feet high, are used, since 

damage to their roots is unavoidable. The best time in Assam is 

perhaps between May and July. 

24. To avoid the carriage of seedlings for long distances, it is 

advisable to establish forest nurseries 

Forest nurseries. , , ... . , , , 

near the areas which are to be planted 

up. Almosl even- animal will eat the young rubber plants ; it is. 
therefore, impossible to plant out small seedlings in the forest, owing 
to the destruction by wild animals and deer, which will break down 
plants up to 10 — 12 feet high, unless each individual plant is fenced in or 
tied to stakes. This was done when the plantation was started. 
Fences of plaited bamboo costing 2 to 4 annas each as well as 
other kinds were used. But these proved 1 insufficient to protect the 
plants, and in 1878-79 a strong fence was made right round the planta- 
tion with the object of keeping out deer. This was very costly, owing 
to the constant repairs that were necessary, and since the tree after it 
is 1 — 2 feet in height is very hardy, the seedlings are kept in stockaded 
nurseries in the forest where planting operations are to take place and 
remain there until they are 10 — 1 2 feet high- They are then planted out 
in the forest. The nurseries must be kept free from long grass and 
under-growth which should be cut from time to time and heaped round 
the roots of the young plants in order to keep the soil moist and to 
serve as manure. Seedlings should not be transplanted into the 
stockaded forest nurseries until they are at least 1 foot high. Smaller 
plants generally die, unless they are watered, and this is not done 
in the forest nurseries. 



(c) Planting in the forest. 

25. Before planting out seedlings, lines are cleared through the 

, , forest, all trees and shrubs being: cut level 

Cleirsnce of I be lines. . ' , ■ ■,,,, 

with the ground over a width of 20 feet. 

Any very large trees standing between the lines are felled at the same 
time, for if felled later on, they are liable to fall on and break the 
rubber plants. A path should also be made along the lines to faci- 
litate inspection of the plants. 

When the Charduar plantation was commenced lines 20 fret broad 
were cleared through the forest at distances of 100 feet apart and the 



, 4 NOTES OX FICdS ELASTICA. 

plants were put out in the lines 50 feet apart. Interplanting was done 
in 1878-80 so that the plants were 25 feet apart. In 1892-93 the 
planting distance was changed to 7o'x35' and again in 1901-02 to 
66'x66' which gives ten plants to the acre. But it would seem 
preferable to plant the seedlings closer together in the lines, for when 
planted 66 feet apart, it requires some years before they grow together. 
It would perhaps be best to plant them 33 feet apart and to thin out 
when necessary. Cuttings might be planted alternately with the 
seedlings. 

At first the lines were cleared due east and west, but of late they 
have been cleared due north and south. By the latter method the 
plants are shaded from the afternoon sun. 

26. It has been found best to plant rubber seedlings on mounds, 

because the roots spread out near the 
Mounds. ' 

surface of the ground. Seedlings planted 

in the ordinary way did not grow well. Stakes about 20 feet long and 

of a minimum diameter of 3 inches are set up in the lines at. a distance 

of 66 feet apart and round each a mound 4 feet high is thrown up. 

The base of the mound is about 10 feet in diameter and it tapers to 

4 feet diameter at the top. 

27. Only seedlings over 10 feet in height are planted out in the forest 

at present. The roots are very la roe, so 
Planting out. ,, , , „,.. 

that they have to be cut off, leaving only 

18 inches all round the plant. Some branches are also pruned off if 

necessary. In 1881-82 it was found necessary to prune off the lower 

branches and leaves from the trees, otherwise the deer were, found to be 

induced by the taste of them to make desperate efforts to break the 

trees with their feet and horns to get at the top or crowns of them. 

The plants are carried to the forest and planted on mounds, care 

being taken to spread out the roots before they are covered with earth. 

To prevent animals pulling down the plants and the wind blowing 

them down, they are tied to stakes in at least two places, one being 

high up at 8 or g feet from the ground. The mounds should then 

be covered with grass and branches which when rotten act as manure. 

Rotten thatching grass is the best, as it does not ferment. It is 

impossible to put too much on and the more the better, but there 

should be at .least 6 inches all over and 1 foot on the top. This 

operation should be repeated whenever the lines are cleared. It is 

monev well spent as it doubles or trebles the rate of growth. 



NATURAL GROWTH AND ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION'. 



•s 



(d) Maintenance of the plantation. 



Clearance of the lines. 



2S. Rul'lxT plants require plenlv of light, ll is, consequently, ab- 
solutely necessary to keep them tree from 
climbers and from being" suppressed by 
flic undergrowth which springs up with marvellous rapidity. If I he 
lines are not cleared, the plants are soon smothered with climbers and 
killed. Formerly (in 1878-80) the lines were cleared three limes a year, 
vis., in May-June, August-September and November-December, but 
at present, owing to the scarcity of labour and the large quantity of 
work which has to be performed, this is only done once a year, after 
the rains. The climbers and the undergrowth should be cut so as to 
free the plants all round. There should be nothing in contact with the 
plants on anv side. If any trees are standing above, or shading the 
plants too much, these trees should be felled, or at any rate some nf 
their branches should be lopped off. But so long as the plants are 
freed all round, it appears an unnecessary expense to clear the lines to 
their full width between the plants at anv rate every vear. It should 
be sufficient to clear a path lor purposes of inspection from one plant 
to the nest. 

Jo. All plants which have died should be replaced during the 

following rains. When the lines are being 
Replanting vacancies. , , ., , 

cleared, if any vacancies are lound, the 

mounds and stakes should be prepared at once so as to be read}' for 

planting when the rains set in. A note should he made ol the numbers 

ol the lines and of the number of vacancies requiring replanting in each. 

This, will save much time, as it will lie unnecessary to go over all the 

lines again and count the number of vacancies, as has generally been 

done. 

30. Any stakes found to be rotten should be replaced when the 
lines are cleared if the plants are still 
small and liable to be broken down by 

deer or thrown down by the wind. 

31. All grass and undergrowth cut when the Jinesare cleared should 

Mound*. be piled on the mounds. 

32. When the rubber plants have reached some size they are liable 
to be suppressed by the trees left standing 



SUkei. 



Fellhig trees between the Une». 



between the lines, which prevent their 




22404 



j I NOTES ON F1CUS ELASTICA. 

lateral spread. As soon as this occurs these trees should be felled or 

girdled. 

33. The measurements of 50 trees in each year's plantation (of 1874- 

75 to 1880-81) made during the years 

Rate of growth. uo o * o u u -a j- r 

1880-81 to 1897-98 are shown in Appendix!. 

They will give some idea of the rate of growth, which is very fast, 
of rubber trees in Charduar Plantation. The following measurements 
made in 1897-98 show the average height and girth of the trees in 

Kulsi Plantation : — 

Plantation of 

'873-77 

1878 .... 

1883 .... 

188 4 .... 

It will be seen that the girth is less, but the height greater than in 
Charduar Plantation. This is due to the trees being planted much 
closer together. 

In 1899-1900 the girths and crowns of 10 per cent, of the trees 
tapped in Charduar Plantation were measured with the following 
results : — 



Average 
age. 


Average 
height. 


Average girth of 
central bole. 


22 years 
19 .. 
M ., 
'3 .. 


88 feet 
81 „ 
67 ., 
55 „ 


£', largest I2{' 
9' 
5' 
4' 



Compart- 
ment. 


Average 
age. 


Number of trees 
measured. 


Average 
girth. 


Average maximum 

diameter of the 

crowns. 


4 


23 years 


100 


106' 


64 feet 


5 


21 „ 


162 


9-1' 


61 „ 


6 


21 „ 


95 


7'4' 


63 „ 


7 


21 „ 


96 


67' 


61 „ 


8 


21 „ 


77 


6-2' 


5« „ 



TAPPING OF TREE, AND PREPARATION OF RUBBER ,7 



CHAPTER II. 

ON THE TAPPING OF F1CUS ELASTICA AND THE PREPARATION OF 
RUBBER FOR EXPORT. 

34. Before the tapping operations commence all the undergrowth 

Clearing (he plantation lines. be '° W the trees is cut ,evel with the 

ground, so that bamboo mats can be 

spread to catch the latex which overflows from the cuts. A small 

path should also be cleared. 

35. At the same time all climbers which cover the trunks 

... , „ . and branches of the trees must be cut so 

Clearing the trees of climbers. 

that they may be quite dead when the 
tappers come round. 

36. Each line of trees in each compartment should bear a number, 

the numbers starting from the principal 
Numbering the trees. . , .... , , , . 

road and the trees in each line should also 

be numbered serially. The following directions have been found 

necessary for the guidance of the officer in charge of the lapping 

operations. Every time the trees are tapped, the numbers should be 

painted over with coal tar ; otherwise they soon disappear and no 

register of outturn from each tree could be kept up. Before starting the 

work the officer should walk along the block line at the end of the 

block and check the numbers on the last trees with the numbers in the 

register, e.g., suppose the register shows 34 trees in a line, then the 

last tree should bear the number 34. When this has been done for all 

the lines, the officer should go again to the first line and see that each 

tree in the line bears its correct number. If there is any doubt, the 

register should again be consulted. When this has been done, the 

painting of the numbers can commence from tree number 1. When the 

first line has been done, the officer should walk back along the second 

fcie and check the trees as before, etc. It is essential that the old 

numbers on the trees should never be altered. 

37. The tapper before commencing to operate with the gouge is 

required to climb the tree he intends 
Fixing "pengs" to the tree*. ^^ ^ ^^ ^ dQwn removing a „ 

dead twigs, climbers, leaves and other impurities which are likely to 
fall on the mats below, and at the same time every experienced tapper 

C 



jg NOTES ON FICUS ELASTICA. 

affixes what are locally called " pengs, " that is, pieces of green wood 
tied with split cane at right angles to the growth ot the stem on all 
branches or boles which are difficult to hold on to when tapping, as 
both his hands must be free for the gouge and the mallet. 

38. At present the cuts are made with a V-shaped gouge about 

ij inches in greatest breadth. It is held 
in the left hand and a small wooden mallet 
in the right. 

When tapping operations were started in 1898-99 "daos" and 
" khukries " or Assamese and Nepalese cutting knives were used, but 
this method resulted in inflicting gaping wounds which are still 
visible and it soon became evident that it was necessary for the 
future welfare of the plantation that some other implement should 
be employed. Experiments were then made with various other 
tools' and of those the V-shaped gouge was found to be the best 
because the depth of the cuts made with this instrument can be to 
some extent regulated and the wounds also heal rapidly. 

39. The tree being prepared the tapper climbs up to the highest 

, • , branch it is intended to tap. He then 

Method 0! tapping. . . r . 

gouges out the bark by giving horizontal 

cuts on alternate sides of the branch, taking care to remove only the 

bark without injury to the wood, but unfortunately this is not always 

done, the cambium layer is severed and the wound takes longer to heal. 

The interval between the cuts should be 15 inches, which is the length 

of the gouge, and each should extend more than half and less than 

two-thirds round the circumference of the branch or bole. No branch 

less than 2 feet in girth should be tapped. 

40. In 1898-99, the year in which tapping operations were started, 

the system adopted was to make the cuts 
Methods formerly employed. , , . x , 

regularly one foot apart down the stem of 

the trees, these cuts being horizontal and not exceeding 8 inches in length 

and 2 inches in width. Aerial roots and branches less than a foot in 

girth were not tapped. It was afterwards found that no fixed rule can 

be laid down and that the experienced Nepalese tappers make the cuts 

2 feet and often more apart and the length of the cuts varies with the 

girth of the bole. Again, they avoid making the cuts immediately one 

below the other and locate them alternately. The position of the cuts 

appears to have more effect oh the yield than their number. In the 



E. M. COVEMTBV— FICUS ELASTlCA. 



PUTE lit. 




photo -Ilea hi. Dupt, TUopiubou Gulle^c, lLoarlifc R, Jd. Owtfuirj, Vhat* 

METHOD OF TAPPING. 



TAPPING OF TREK, AND PREPARATION OF RUBBER. IQ 

following year further experiments were made. The cuts were made 
horizontal or only slightly oblique, it being noticed that the wounds 
bled in proportion to their horizontal direction and that any consider- 
able deviation from this direction resulted in a slower and reduced 
flow of rubber. Experiments on untapped trees were made with the 
view of testing this point; arrow-shaped (the Brazilian method), 
oblique, as well as horizontal cuts being made, when it became 
apparent that the latex flowed far more freely from the last than from 
either of the others. 

41. The latex occurs in the bark and in the leaves. It seems safe 

OccurreoceoHhel.tex. !° aSSGrt that the r " bber CG,,S arG f jlaced 

in more or less vertical rows when it will 

be readily understood why a horizontal cut must be much more 

effective in tapping their contents than a vertical or oblique cut of 

equal length. 

42. The latex exudes from the surfaces of the cut bark and some 

of it overflows and tails to the ground, but 
Flow of the latex. . , „ 

alter two to three minutes the How ceases 

and the remainder of the latex coagulates in the cuts. When dry it is 
stripped off the tree and when this is done a milky and sometimes 
copious residuum runs from the wound down the tree. It has been 
ascertained that this liquid contains no caoutchouc and is capable of 
being absorbed by blotting paper or of being evaporated in the sun ; 
that, in fact, it consists of little else than water. 

In March the latex. becomes of a watery nature and a large propor- 
tion of it which spurts out of the wound and is collected on mats 
evaporates leaving no trace. 

43. Formerly the overflow was collected from the ground after it 

was dry and was called "ground rubber," 
Collection of mat robber. ^ ^ h;imboo mats ] iave been spread 

under the trees to catch this overflow. Ordinary bamboo mats 5' x 2f, 
which cost from 1 anna to 14 annas each, are used for collecting the 
overflow of latex from the cuts. These mats are first well dried in the 
sun for a week, for if green bamboo mats are used the rubber becomes 
discoloured and black, and for this reason for the last two years a 
strong solution prepared by boiling down 1 part of rubber bark (cut 
into small strips) in 60 parts of water for 5 hours, is smeared over each 
mat before use in order that the mat rubber might obtain the same red 

C2 



20 NOTES ON FICUS ELASTICA. 

tint which the rubber derives from contact with the bark. As there 
has been little or no difference in the price of the coloured and 
uncoloured rubber, it is proposed to discontinue this practice and, 
instead, give every matman six well-dried mats, which he spreads out 
on the ground one by one, watching the drip of the latex from the cuts 
as they are being made. 

The latex of the Ficus Elastica being very viscid only flows for 
about three minutes after the cut has been made : as soon as the drip 
from the cut ceases the mats are struck on the back with a stick to 
throw off strips of bark and other impurities which may have fallen 
from above and thus the same six mats may be used over and over 
again until they are thickly coated with coagulated latex. Any 
impurities seen imbedded in the latex are removed at once and the 
mats are then be put out in the sun, and when dry enough, (generally 
after two days), the rubber is pulled off and after picking and cleaning 
is weighed in at the godown and at once given out to women for 
further hand picking. At the close of each day's work all the mats in 
use are put in the sun for a short time to dry and are then carefully 
put away under shelter from the dew and rain. Each mat will 
ultimately carry a sheet of rubber from three to five pounds in weight, 
but as soon as the mats turn black they should be thrown away. 
Small tins and mats have been hung below the cuts to catch the latex, 
as an experiment, but the system has been abandoned as being too 
expensive. 

44. Generally on the third day after the cuts have been made (the 

„ „ „ ., tt time depending on the weather) the latex 

Collection o( (Tee rubber. , ■ ,' . - , 

which has remained in the cuts is dry 

enough to be pulled off the tree. It should be kept in long strips and 
on no account be rolled up into balls for if the tappers are allowed to 
roll up the rubber, stones, bark and other impurities will be found 
inside the balls. As a tapping register is kept up showing the yield of 
each individual tree separately, the rubber after collection from the 
cuts has to be weighed at the foot of the tree and thereafter the whole 
of one day's collection is taken to the godown and re-weighed. 

45. Immediately after weighment it is given out to women to be 

„, , „ hand-picked and cleaned. The longer 

Cleaning <he rubber. ., r . . . . , ., j-tr u 

rubber is left uncleaned the more difficult 

is it to work, as the impurities are held by the drying rubber and have 



TAPPING OF TREE, AND PREPARATION OF RUBBER. it 

ultimately to be cut out. Tree rubber is divided into two classes "A" 
and " B " which are separated by the women when cleaning. Class A 
contains only the rubber which is collected from the cuts. Class B 
contains the rubber which runs from the cut down the branch or bole 
of the tree and not being coloured by the sap from the cut bark remains 
white or grey like the mat rubber. 

The mat rubber is classed as '' C " rubber. 

46. The three classes of rubber are kept separate in the godown 

. , JL t . spread out on shelves nut up for the 

Drying the rubber. ^ s ' ., 

purpose. 1 lie sheets ot mat rubber are 

hung up on cords stretched across the godown. Every morning, as 
soon as the fog lifts and the sun is bright, all the rubber is put out in 
the sun for a quarter of an hour and then replaced on the shelves. 

Class A rubber should after drying in this manner for ten days be 
ready for packing, and the same applies to B rubber; but class C 
rubber is kept for a month before being packed. 

47. When the rubber is quite drv 1 cvvt. is weighed out and 

by means of screw pressure is convened 
Pressing the rubber. . . . , . . -. . 

into an 18-inch cube. Alter 24 hours 

it is ready for packing. 

48. The packing is done with country cotton cloth which by 

means of thorough washing has been 

Packing <he rubber. deprived f all starch and other facing. 

After re-weighment the package is then sewn into a double gunny bag, 

the number and the weight of the rubber is stencilled on it and it is 

ready for export. 

49. The best season for tapping is the cold weather from about 

the middle of October to the end of March. 
Season In- tapping. ^ yie , d ^ greatcsl from thc midd I e o£ 

November to the middle of January, i.e., when the growth of the trees 
is at the minimum. The colder the weather, the greater the outturn is 
said to be ; but settled weather is essential, for if rain occurs within 
two days of tapping, part of the latex is washed away and the loss is 
heavy, while what remains on the stems loses in elasticity and 
becomes brittle and discoloured, and after some days of continuous 
rain it turns black in the same way as mat rubber, if washed, also 
turns black. Most rubber is yielded in the early morning. As the 
temperature rises the yield decreases and is at its lowest in the 



NOTES ON FICUS ELASTtCA. 



Interval between tappings. 



evening. In cloudy weather the yield is said to be greater than when 
it is sunny. 

50. The age at which the trees should be tapped is not exactly 

known, but it depends mainly on their size. 
** ° app g ' it is known that the yield of small trees 

(say up to 3 or 4 feet in girth) is in the Assam plantations 
very small so that it hardly pays to tap them ; but this may not be 
the case under other conditions than those obtaining at Charduar and 
Khulsi. 

51. It seems probable that rubber trees cannot be tapped every 
year without permanent injury but that 
they require at least one year's rest. 

Gamble ("Manual of Indian Timbers") states that " the tree will not 
bear yearly tapping, once in three years is as much as it will stand ; if 
tapped yearly, it is liable to die off, as did many of the trees in 
Darjeeling after heavy tapping in 1871, 1872 and 1873. Those which 
then survived had not recovered sufficiently for retapping by 1880, and 
I have not heard of their having been tapped since then." 

Twenty-one selected dominant trees in compartments 2 and 3 of 
Charduar plantation were tapped for three years in succession, vis., 
1896-97, 1897-98, and 1898-99 and yielded 46, 48 and 9 lbs. of rubber, 
showing a great falling off in the third year. Compartment 4 was 
also tapped for three years in succession, vis., in 1898-99, 1 899-1 900 
and igoo-or. In the third year only 100 trees were tapped, as there 
was a great falling off in the yield. Fifty trees were tapped by the 
method of opening the old cuts and 50 by making Tresh incisions 
between the old cuts. The following figures show the result of tapping 
the 50 trees by the method of opening the old cuts •. — 



— 


Yield in 


1898-99 


1899-1900 1900-01 


;,o trees ..... 


lbs. 02. 
55 7 


lbs. oz. 
42 4 


lbs. oz. 
14 8 



TAPPING OF TREE, AND PREPARATION * RUBBER. 33 

These figures, as a whole, may be taken as conclusively proving 
that the tapping of trees three years in succession by the system of 
re-opening the old cuts is a failure. Under the system of retapping 
by making fresh incisions between the old cuts, the following figures 
show the total yield of the 50 trees so operated on for three years in 
succession : — 



— 




Yield in 




1898-95 


1 899-1900 


IOOO-OI 


50 trees ..... 


lbs. ox. 
43 


lbs. oz. 
35 '3 


lb*. 02. 
84 1 



There was a considerable falling off in the third year. 

Trees have also been tapped twice during the same season, as an 
experiment, but at the second tapping the yield has been about 50 per 
cent, less than at the first. 

Further experiments extending over some years are required 
before it can be known definitely at what intervals the trees should be 
tapped, but it seems probable that tapping cannot proceed every year, 
unless it is very lightly done. Part of Compartment No. 7, of Char- 
duar plantation, has been- tapped in 1905-06 after one year's rest and 
shows a large falling off in yield, whilst Compartment No. 1, of Kulsi 
plantation, tapped after an equal interval, shows a small increase. But 
the Deputy Ranger who has been in charge for threr years considers 
the quality of rubber inferior to that previously obtained. Conse- 
quently it would appear that a rest for two years after tapping is 
required, but further experiments are necessary before any definite 
decision is arrived at. 



Notes on ficus elastica. 



52. The following figures show the outturn per acre and per tree in 
clean and dried rubber for the compart- 
ments tapped up to date at Charduar 
plantation : — 



Outturn of rubber, Charduar 
plantation. 



Compart- 
ment 
No. 




Yield per acre 


n 11,1. 


n 






Yield per tree In lb*. 1 


i 




i 


g 

i 


., 


J 




4 
1 


4 

i 


s I 

i. 


| 

i 


4 

1 


4 J 


4 


4 




1 


8-6 






277 




... 


3G9 


0-5 






1-6 




,. 


18 


2 


9-0 






344 






350 


0-5 






19 






20 


3 


113 






30'5 






36 9 


07 






18 




.., 


1-8 


4 


9'7 


91 


61 




226 






0-6 


0-6 


0-4 




1-4 




... 


S 




82 


.. 




204 








o-fi 




... 


1'4 




... 


6 




11-5 






22-4 








08 






1-5 






7 




10 4 








23'6 






08 








1-8 




8 




89 






... 


252 






0'7 








1-9 




9 






80 






158 








07 






1-5 




10 






11-2 








250 






0-9 








2-1 


11 






64 








175 


... 




04 








1-2 



It will be seen that there has been a large increase at the second 
tapping. The percentage of mat rubber in 1904-05 on the whole 
outturn was 26'8 per cent. The loss in cleaning and drying amounts 
to %\ per cent., that of tree rubber being 3 per cent, and that of mat 
rubber 5 per cent. 

The largest yield from a single tree in 1905-06 was 7 lbs. 15 oz. 

In the report for 1874-75 it is stated that, if tapping is commenced 
in the branches, most rubber will be obtained from them ; if in stem, 
from the stem. This requires proof. The branches are said to yield 
more rubber than the stem. In 1899-1900 and the previous year, the 
crowns of 10 per cent, of the trees tapped were measured, and it was 
found that the outturn of rubber was in proportion to the spread 
of the trees, those with the largest crowns yielding most. 

53. The Kulsi plantation, started in 1873, has an area of 1536 

acres. It has been divided into two blocks. 
Outturn of rubber, Kulgl plantation. _, „ , 

Block A, area 80 acres, consisting of com- 
partments 1 to 4, had an average age of 32 years in 1905-06 and 



TAPPING OF TREE, AND PREPARATION OF RUBBER. 35 

Block B, the remainder of the plantation, area 65-6 acres, of 2S 
years. The trees were first planted 100' X 25' apart. A few years 
later the spacing was altered to 50' x 25' and Finally it was decided 
to plant 25' x 25'. The yield of rubber is given below :— 



Block or Com- 
partment. 



C 1 

C a 

C 3 

C 4 



Planting 
. distance. 



50x25 
50x25 
50x25 
50x25 



Yield per acre in lbs. 



271 ! ... 

28-0 ... 

29-0 * ... 

£1-1 ... 



,9 * ■ # 
'1 S S 



Plantation 1S7S 50x25 
1883 , 25x25 

Block I. 
Plantation 1883 26x25 

liiock II. I 

Plantation 18S3 25x25 

liiock III. 
Plantation iS8« 25x26 



M 2 

45-0 
422 



4806 



57-1 
218 

301 

170 

218 



6P0 
309 

301 

57-8 

319 



11 
11 
ID 
11 



Yield per tree In tt>j. 



1(5 

17 I 



1-8 



M 

11 

rs 

06 
0-5 



54- A sample of Charduar plantation rubber was analysed by the 

Reporter on Economic Products and gave 
Analysis of rubber. , ' ,, 

the following results : — 



— 


Calculated on 
material as 
received per 

ernl. 


Calaibted on 

material dried 

at iouo C. per 

cent. 

77'47 

'9'3 

»'S 

> 7 


Caoutchouc (tree rubber) .... 

Albuminoid matter ..... 
Dirt and insoluble matter .... 

Ash included in dirt 


76-07 

'7 
0-9 



°'5 


f'5 



It was noted that the rubber contained comparatively smalt quanti- 
ties of albuminoid matter, dirt and moisture and that so far u 
these constituents arc concerned no objection can be taken to its 
quality. The amount of resin present is abnormally high, the quantity 
of this material usually found is the rubber of Ficus elastica being from 
3 to 7 per cent. This high percentage appears to be a constant 
feature of rubber produced in the Charduar plantation, a sample 



U **±S**««* 




GKVK 



22404 






2 6 NOTES ON FICUS ELASTICA. 

previously examined at the Imperial Institute having been found to contain 
18 per cent. No precise data are available to show how the composi- 
tion of the rubber of Ficus elastica varies with the age of the trees from 
which it is obtained, and it would probably be oE interest to examine 
samples of Charduar rubber from time to time in the future in order to 
determine whether the amount of rubber decreases as the trees mature 
or whether it is independent of age and due possibly to climate or 
other external causes inducing a change in the composition from that 
obtained from the branches. 

55. Twenty-five lbs. each of bark and leaves were collected and after 

drying in the sun for three days the 
Analysis ol bark and leaves. ? , , , . , . . 

samples were lorwarded to the Imperial 

Institute for analysis with the following result. 

Bark. — " The bark was in the form of narrow strips, about one 
inch wide, which had evidently been obtained in tapping operations. 
On breaking these strips there was little evidence of the presence of 
rubber in the bark, as only in a few cases were any threads of caout- 
chouc visible. 

The rubber present in the bark was estimated by extracting with 
hot chloroform and precipitating the concentrated solution by the 
addition of alcohol. In this way 07 per cent, of caoutchouc-like 
material was obtained from the bark, but it is of very poor quality as 
it possessed little elasticity or tenacity and hardened on standing. 

Leaves. — '' The leaves were quite dry and brittle, and when treated 
in the same manner as the bark no caoutchouc or caoutchouc-like 
material could be extracted from them/' 

It is noted that better results might have been obtained by working 
with fresh material and that it would have been better to have dried 
the specimens in the shade than in direct sun light. Also that the 
latex present in the leaves of rubber trees is often of a very resinous 
nature and the product might be of very little commercial value. 

56. In 1904-05 the cost of tapping operations at Charduar amounted 

to Re. o-6-io per pound of clean, dry rubber. 
Cos* of tapping operations. „ . r l J . 

J he cost includes that of clearing the 

rubber lines, purchase of mats, cloth, gunny bags and gouges, erection 

of temporary huts, tapping, cleaning, drying, packing, cartage to 

Tezpur, colouring the mats and making of wooden presses, etc. The 

rubber was sold for Rs. 2-1 1-0 per lb. delivered at Tezpur. 



TAPPING OF TREE, AND PREPARATION OF RUBBER. 3, 

57- When operations were started in 1898-99 the cuts were coal- 

CMi-tarrtag the cute. tarred ' This was found unnecessary and 

has been discontinued. The cuts, especially 
those made with the V-shaped gouge, heal rapidly. 

58. During the first three years the crown and girth measurements 

of io per cent, of the trees were taken, sal 
Measurements of girth and 1 ■ j ■ ■ . ,1 , , , 

crowns of the trees. P e g s bein g driven into the ground to mark 

the crown measurements and a coal-tarring 
to show where the girth o\ the trees had been taken. These measure- 
ments besides being entered in a book were struck on to a large zinc 
label which was affixed to the trees. The report of 1899-1900 stales 
that the girth measurements of the trees are difficult to make in a uniform 
manner, owing to aerial roots which form supplementary stems having a 
tendency to anastomose, that the figures under this head mav be ignored : 
and the report of the following year that after considering the question 
of these crown measurements on the ground it was decided that in no 
single instance would any two persons agree in the measurements 
taken. It may. however, be accepted as an axiom that the greater (he 
leaf canopy, the larger the root system and the greater the yield of the 
tree. After this year the measurements were discontinued. 

59. The practice of tapping the roots of rubber trees is often 

carried on illicitly in the forests. It is most 

appng- destructive and often kills the trees. It 

might be prevented by imposing a very high duty on root rubber which 

can be easily distinguished from the rubber obtained from other parts 

of the. tree. This proposal is at present under consideration. 

60. At first " mikirs," who are said to be the best tappers in 

Assam, were employed on a daily wage of 
Labour employed. ^ ^^ ^ day Nepalese and local 

Assamese were also engaged and paid Rs. 30 and Rs. 20, respectively, 
per maund of rubber collected . At present Garos and local Assamese are 
employed. They are paid annas four per pound of rubber collected. It is 
necessary that the men should be good climbers, since they have to use 
both hands when tapping the trees. Each tapper is accompanied by .1 
boy, his son or some near relative, so that both tappers and matman have 
the same interest in the cleanliness of the mat rubber. One matman is 
able to move the mats of two tappers who are working at the same tree, 
but one matman cannot attend to two men who are tapping different trees. 



2 g NOTES ON FICUS ELASTICA. 



NOTE BY S. EARDLEY -W1LMOT, INSPECTOR-GENERAL OF 

FORESTS. 

THE information embodied in this pamphlet comprises what has been 
learnt in Assam regarding the plantation of Ficus elastica there, but 
the financial statistics of these plantations would form no guide to the 
planter who commences operations with 30 years of departmental 
experience to guide him, and they have therefore been omitted. 

2. It rnav, however, be stated that it would cost about Rs. 20 per acre 
to stock that area with rubber trees whether large seedlings are put out 
at from 16 to 20 to the acre or a greater number of smaller transplants. 
The cost of preparing the plantation for the reception of the plants 
would vary with the locality ; where virgin forest or swampy ground 
has \o be dealt with the expenditure would naturally be higher than if 
neither of these drawbacks were present, involving expensive clearances 
or the construction of mounds. In any case the maximum cost of 
preparation should not be more than Rs. 20 or Rs. 30 per acre, bringing 
up the total to Rs. 40 or Rs. 50 per acre stocked with young plants. 

3. It appears to me personally that where damage from wild 
animals is not to be anticipated it might be preferable to put out 
younger plants about 30 to 5° to the acre, so that probably after a very 
few years these would by their shade keep the undergrowth in check 
and future expensive cleanings would be unnecessary. It also seems 
to me that the tapping of such a fully stocked plantation could be 
commenced much earlier than at 25 years of age, probably at 12 or 14 
years ; the yield would not be large per tree but would amount to a 
considerable weight per acre although the cost of collection would 
probably run rather high. 

4. The question of the greatest yield per acre, based on the number 
of trees on that area, must be made the subject of careful enquiry, for it 
is obvious that a point must be reached when the yield from a large 
number of smaller trees would be equal or more than that from a few 
larger stems. Meanwhile all we know is that at 20 to 25 years of age 
an acre of plantation containing 16 to 20 trees will yield about 35 lbs. of 
rubber every third year; and that there is every reason to surmise that 



REMARKS OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL OF FORESTS. 

in the previous five to ten years it might have yielded one-third that 
amount and would in the following ten years give a larger quantity. 
Whether this increase will continue for many further terms of ten years 
and whether the planter should, to obtain this advantage, maintain or 
reduce the number of standards per acre is unknown. 

5. The yield of the Assam plantations is extremely small ; wc read 
that in Java on a plantation of 72 acres, on which were planted 5,200 
trees, tapping commenced at 1 4 years of age and that after 7 years 
work the outturn per acre per annum was 71 lbs. of rubber. At 
Charduar the outturn of 23 to 25 years old trees is about one-sixth of 
that amount, and this justifies further enquiry as to the method and 
recurrence of tapping, operations. It appears probable that iT the latex 
could be collected without subjecting the tree to sucli extensive bark 
injuries the outturn could be very largely increased. It is possible that 
the vitality of the tree suffers from the removal of such a large per- 
centage (about 4 per cent.) of its bark during each tapping operation and 
that this, and not so much the flow of latex, renders yearly tapping 
impossible. This is a subject on which more knowledge is required. 

6. The rubber of Assam contains so large a proportion of resin (19 
per cent.) that its commercial value is considerably diminished. It may 
be sold, as during the current year, at the railway, four miles away, at 
Rs. 3 per pound on the total outturn of good, bad and indifferent, but 
this leaves a wide margin on the6j. per pound given in London for tine 
Para biscuits. We require some further knowledge of the demands of 
the tree in soil, climate and locality and their influences, if any, on the 
proportion of resin in the latex and on the outturn of rubber; and as 
the finest natural rubber trees are found on the well drained slopes of 
the sub-tropical hills we may have doubts whether the production of 
the best rubber is feasible in localities which for weeks of the year 
are either covered with water or are subject to repeated inundations of 
a less permanent nature as is the case at Charduar and Khulsi. 

7. Finally the cost of collection might probably be reduced, and as 
this now amounts to 4$ annas per pound in the plantations, where there 
is no undergrowth, to 7 annas per pound in other localities less 
favourably situated, this subject will also doubtless repay further 
investigation. In this regard the comparative cost of tapping many 
smaller or a few larger trees will have to be considered, the physical 
labour and danger being greater in the latter case. 



NOTES ON FICUS ELASTICA. 

APPENDIX I. 

Height growth in feet. 










Chardimr 


Plantation. 






Bamoni Hill 
plantation 


Arc in 

years. 








Plantation of 






Average. 


lS 7 4-5. 


1875-O. 


illy*?. 


1877-8. 


1878-9. 


1879-S0. 


iSSo-i. 


of 1874-5. 














7-30* 


7-36 
















10-17 


o-8o 


9-98 




3 










16-36 


12-5° | 


■ 3-00 


14-17 




4 








21-07 


IQ-0 


I7-4I 


15-69 


18-29 




5 






24-09 


24-58 


23'31 


19-85 


20'oS 


22-50 




6 




26-87 


28-50 


29-41 


25-4I 


23-91 


24 -58 


26-45 




7 


31-26 


29-25 


3 2 -5 


30-27 


30-lC 


2975 


28-00 


30-23 




8 


3275 


34 '4 « 


3417 


3475 


33-S3 


34-83 


32-0 


33'S2 




9 


37« 


3S-3 6 


38-16 


40-75 


37-58 


38-25 


38-5S 


38-19 




10 


40'oG 


4C08 


46-83 


44-83 


42'iG 


44-0 


43-33 


43-04 




ii 


43'33 


44-58 


47-91 


48-50 


46-10 


4S'4l 


46-83 


46-53 




13 


49-0 


49-83 


52-25 


5375 


49-41 


52-08 


47-83 


50-59 


36-5 


13 


53'25 


52-33 


55-83 


57'o 


52-25 


53'oS 


50-10 


53'4i 


40-58 


•4 


55-S3 


57-50 


6riG 


60-75 


53-25 


5416 


55-75 


56-91 


42-91 


'5 


Crgi 


61-41 


63-83 


6i75 


55'4 ■ 


60-75 


59-yi 


G071 


47-25 


16 


C4'33 


6475 


04-91 


64-08 


59'75 


03-25 


64-08 


63-59 


55'4' 


■7 


0675 


65-83 


67-66 


08-83 


03'iC 


66-41 


05-33 


66-28 


58-83 


18 


67-91 


C8'8i 


71-66 


72'i0 


65-08 


67-41 


6S-o 


6873 


60-75 


'9 


71-08 


73-o8 


75-o8 


73M1 


6g'i6 


70-83 




7211 


62-9 1 


20 


7475 


76-0 


77-611 


74-91 


71-S8 






74-gS 


69-66 


21 


77'33 


77-58 


80-41 


78-41 








78-43 


73-66 


22 


78-0 


8r 5 8 


80-91 










So-i6 


77'oS 


23 


83-25 


83*6 












83-45 


So-50 


2+ 


SjO 


. 












85-0 


84-16 



- 1 nt-'JlL" IIIU3L- UtlV-i UWi ™~- w -™- j_™------ ,.--,-.-«- 

Average annual increase in heipht for Charduar plantation 

8.5-7-36. , 3 R. 
2 3 . . 

Bamoni Hill plantation 
84-16 — 36-5 

12 



- 4-01 



APPENDICES. 

APPENDIX II, 

Circumference growth in feet. 



Si 









CHARDUAR PLANTATION. 






Uajnani Hill 


Age in 








Plantation of 






Average 


l>l**r.lalion 


years. 


1S74-5. 


iS;5-r>. 


iSjb-f. 


1S77-S. 


l87S-y, 


1 879-80. 


iSSo-i. 

0-36 


of 1874-5. 


i 














«ra6 




2 












°'.15 


o'41 


0*38 




3 










o'C7 


•'■58 


o'dti 


ot; 4 




4 








0-99 


10 


0-83 


0-98 


0-95 




5 






1-20 


i'5S l'oS 


1'20 


i«3 


'■39 









1-28 


2'0 


■'75 1j5 


2'4I 


i-ji 


182 




7 


170 


2-oS 


2'08 


2-iy 3-41 


3'33 


r s i 


2'3S 




S 


2-66 


2-oS 


2-38 


375 


3'33 


3'83 


3'5" 


3'"5 




9 


2'Uli 


2-S 4 


475 


3'9i 


3'4> 


3'9' 


4-.0 


3* 




IO 


3'55 


4-5S 


4'»! 


4'25 4'oS 


5'ifi 


4-Sj 


4-48 




ll 


5"4> 


0-25 


5'o 


5'33 4-50 


5-t,o 


4-33 


S-uS 




12 


8-gi 


0- 7 S 


(i-jjl 


5'S)' 575 


(,■58 


5'5" 


"'52 




13 


cj-o 


7'33 


7'4' 


S-ij<> | 6-gi 


6-66 


«a 


7-0S 




M 


ia"66 


7-S3 


S-iO 


7'9 7"« 


0-75 


S-35 


777 




'5 


n'41 


9 1 1 6 


9'oS 


7'S3 7'»6 


7'5S 


7'41 


H"S2 


ID'S.! 


iG 


I2'I0 


9-Si 


9-1O 


TO' S-o 


775 


S-9I 


g-io 


13*4! 


'7 


I3-00 


I0'o 


9'2J 


S-ifi 8-25 


1 o«. 


1 1 '41 


!0'3O 


1JH8 


1 8 


'3-83 


1 o"o8 


1 ro 


8-.;o 8-g i 


19-33 


I2'I(i 1 


10-97 


i4'l'i 


'9' 


'3'9> 


iroS 


12'o 


n-uS 


1 1 - 1 


U'-iJ 




iroS 


(«3 


20 


'575 


12-41 


I2'lG 


12-Sj 


1 1 "50 






"'93 


ijrjS 


21 


1675 


14-91 


14-08 


'375 








MK7 


'59' 


22 


1 8'o 


i6-iG 


14-91 










iG'jO 


id'o 


23 


18-91 


20-75 












1,,-H.l 


iC'aj 


24 


23-16 








1 




1 


23-10 


16*91 



Averape annual increase in ffirth 

2.V16 -^iv-16 _ foet for c hatduar plantation. 

23 
jfrgi -_io-Sa _ o ^ g fwt fflr B>nioni Hill plantation. 

The measurements were apparently made aver the aerial root* 



3* 



NOTES ON F1CUS ELASTICA. 











APPENDIX 


in. 












Areas j etc. 






Compart- 
ment. 


Area in 
acres. 


Num- 
ber of 
lines. 


Number 
of trees. 


Years in 
which 
opened. 


Year in 

which 

planted. 


Year in 

which 

replanted. 


Remarks. 


1 

2 


ofi'o; 
73'4 8 I 


=0 

3« 


1,108 

1,200 


1S73-4 lS 73/4 t 
1S7S-9 ( 

Da '873-4 1 
1878-0 f 




In 1879-S0 trees 
interplanted so 
as to be 25' 
apart. 


3 


79-80 


42 


1,225 


1874-5 


1875^5 




Do. 


4 


94'3' 


43 


1,52' 


1874-5 


1S75-6 




D 0. 


5 


126-84 


41 


1,859 


1 876-7 


1876-S 




6 


77-25 


40 


1,112 


Do. 1876-S 




Do. 


7 


So'39 


38 


I,ofJ2 


Do. & 77-S 1876-9 




Do. 


8 


7373 


37 


97S 


Do. & 77-S 1876-9 


J 





87-80 


30 


946 


1878-9 


1881-2 






10 


76-30 


29 772 


Do. 


Do. 






ii 


94'D 


30 | M'3 


1882-3 


1SS2-3 




\ Seedlings were 
I planted on 


121 


f 98'3f 


20 


043 


1S88-9 


1 SS8-9 


1892-3 


s forks of trees 
\ over 30 acres 


12* 


) CO 


iS 




f 1897-S 
1 1R95-6 


J 1897-S 
X <S95-6 




J in 1S83-5. 


I2f 


5° 


10 494 


1903-5 1903-5 






'3 


29 '59 


24 ' 


1SS4-5 1S84-5 






M 


6S'4S 


lC 5 


Do. Do. 










"2 


C" 1SS4-5 


f '8S4-5 






IS 


ilS'o 


56 i 




1 1888-9 


1 1890-1 


>Sg2-3 




id 


a«l"o 


u 

.a 
jS 1 


1S80-90 


1890-1 


1892-3 




'7 


102 


1S90-1 


f 1S90-1 

\\ 1S91-2 


1802-3 




18 


407-4 


116 & 


( 1801-2 
1 1S92-7 


1 So 2-7 






»9 


262-5 


93 M 

a. 


1 899-1 000 


1S99-1900 






30 


3«47 


76 , (= 


1900-1 


1 900-1 & 01-02 






21 


23-06 


* 


Do. 


Do. 






Total 


2747'85 









APPENDICES. 

APPPEND1X IV. 

Area statement. 



3J 



Year. 



•873-4 ■ 
'874-5 ■ 
1875-6 . 
1876-7 . 
1877-S . 
1878-9 . 
1879-S0 . 
1880-1 . 
1S81-2 . 
1882-3 . 
1S83-4 . 

1S84-5 . 
1S85-6 . 
i8a6- 7 . 
1887-8 . 
iS88-g . 
1889-90 
iSgo-i . 
1891-2 . 
1892-3 . 
1893-4 . 

"894-5 ■ 
1S95-C . 
1S9S-7 . 
1897-S . 
1898-9 . 
1899-1900 
1 900-1 . 
1901-2 . 
1902-3 . 
1903-4 . 
1904-5 .. 



Compartments opened or planted. 



Areas 
added. 



1 and 2 

3 and 4 
5 (part or whole), C (part), 7 (part) 

5 (part), 6, 7 and 8 (parts) 

1 (part), 2 (part), 7 (part), 8 (part) 

9 and 10 



Seedlings received in forks of trees 
in compartment 12. 
13 and 14 
15 (part) or 14 (part)* 



12 a and 15 (part) 

15 (part) and 16 

17 

IS 
lS 

lib 
iS 
126 
Potasali block 
'9 



1S0 

140 
110 

'43 
112 

11S 



89 



63 

4.,.' 

asj 

300 
41 

20 
12 
41 
40 

180 
80 

271 
■3 
10 



Other alterations 
in area. 



41c 
— 5183 



378^ + oSf 
+ 'We 

— tod 

■ nya 



Area at 

close of year 

in acres. 



iSg 

IS. 1 

,'.-•11 

4>u 

W! 

uSj 
803 

Boa 

S0.1 

Sij; 

1,012 

•*W 

W3 

'^43 

i,"i.i 

1«5J8 

1,70 J 
Ii7»l 

a/*3 

,>",■ 
a, 1 oi 
-,"'.V 
l/'SSJ 
1,700 

1,740 

3,»5J 

3,833 

a,74 G 



a — disforested. 
4 = reafforested. 
c -■ corrections of area. 
d — Postasaliiiiock abandoned. 
» ci 4 according to the annual report, but the area of eij and 14 is only 05 acres and no acre* 

D 



were planted last year. 



34 



NOTES ON FICUS ELAST1CA. 

APPEN 

Statement showing the outturn of Rubber 











1 
I 






OUTTURN 




g 


•s 




a. j- 

4J 


Tree Rubber, 


Mat Rubber. 


| 


^O 






Is 




I Is 


a. 

J , 


c 

1 


a 
a. 
■ 

< 


> 


1 

a 

z 


3 


"a! 
Z 


a 
aJ.S 


s 

3 


1 "o S 
Z | al .5 


i 


oo-i 


CC-i 


1898-99. 


1. 149 








63s 
501 










06-1 
CC-i 


1901-02. 
1904-05 • 


i,»33 
1,107 


1,250 
i,6i« 


".565 


3 


476 


5 


2 


677 


677 
677 1 

077 


1898-99 

1901-02. 

1904-05. 


1. 174 
1,228 

1,230 


>,S49 
1,790 


1.735 


3 


830 

737 


697 


5 


3 


7i"3 


7S'3 . 


1898-99. 


1,212 
I,2l6 1 
930 1 








806 


... 1 








75"3 

57-G ' 


igoi-02 
1904-05. 


1.553 
I.3M 


1,271 


3 


373 


358 


4 


4 


94'3 


94'3 | 


1898-99 . 


I.5M 














94"3 


1899-1900 


1.499 
















94'3 


1900-01 
1902-03 


too 


M87 


1,464 


"i* 


692 


672 3 


5 


126-8 


ik.'S 

1 90S 


1899-1900 
1902-03 . 


».S 4 9 , 
1,866 ! 


2,093 


2,068 


1 


544 


524 , 3i 


6 


77'2S 


77-25 1 
77'25 


1 S99-00 . 
1902-03 


1,116 
1,112 


i',42S 


M" 


1 


340 


323 


5 


7 


So'39 


8o'39 
80-39 


1 899-1 90a 
1903-04 . 


1,060 

I,0$S 


I.43 6 


'.377 


4 


541 


522 3t 
8 11 








1903-04 


52 


37 


35 


5 


9 








Do. 2nd 






















tapping. 
















8 


7373 


73-73 
73'73 


1 899-1 900 
1903-04 
1903-04. 
Do. 2nd 
tapping. 


980 

97S 
50 


1.443 
30 


1.407 
2S 


'2I 
6i 


470 
8 


_ 

447 
8 


5 


9 


87-8 


87-8 
87-8 


1900-01 . 
1903-04 . 


953 
946 


1,116 


1,082 


3 


3'8 

S 


307 
8 


"sl 






• >• 


1 903-04 


50 


26 


2 5 


4 










Do 2n d 






| 










IO 


66-9 


SO9 
669 


tapping. 
1900-01 . 
. 1904-05 . 


SoS 
772 


6S1 
1,172 


1 


"3l 


67 
5°5 


483 


4 


II 


94'9 


94 - << 


1900-01 


M95 


S55 




... 


49 




"6 






94-9 


1904-05 . 


i,4i3 


1,171 


i.'35 


3 


555 


52* 


3 Nur- 


5'8 


5-S 


1901-02 . 


75 e 




... 








... 


•ery. 




5-S 


1 
1904-05. 


p 


J 5° 
I 27 


47 




16 


16 








5-3 


1904-05 ■ 


? 


27 




10 


9 










Do. 2nd 






















tapping. 




















• •• 




... 


77 


74 


4 


26 


25 


4 


3 Nur- 


4*5 


4'5 


1901-02. 


31S 












... 


sery. 




4 '5 


1904-05 . 


? 


114 


no 


3l 


40 

28 


38 
26 


5 


IO Nup 


B'4 


9'4 


1904-05. 


| ? 


129 


124 


4 


7 


sery. 








1 




• 








J 



APPENDICES. 

BIX V. 

from the Charduar Rubber Plantation. 



35 



IN POUNDS. 





TOTAL. 








Per acre. 










Per tree. 




1 


z 


IP. c. of loss 
in cleaning". 


Tree rubber. 


Mat 
rubber. 


Total. 


Tree 
rubber. 


Mat 

rubln-r. 

M 


Total, 


g 


B 


j 

6 


Z 


OS 


Nett 
Gross. 


i 

z 


i 


* 
Y. 


611 
1,885 


57s 
1.836 


5* 

2l 


18*9 




9-S 




:S'" 


8*6 
277 


11 




ot. 


... 


O'S 
'7 


n 


2,117 
655 


2,041 
607 


3i 
7 


24-4 


237 


7-6 


7-a 


3a 
97 


jo-o 
9-0 


'5 


'.:: 4 


.? 


o'4 


1-9 1*8 


2.379 


2,32s 


2 


22'9 




12-3 




35 ■> 


34'4 


1*3 




07 




!'o l;l 


2.5Z7 


2.432 


4 


26-4 


25-6 


1 0'9 


ro- 3 


37'3 


359 


'■5 


I'4 


o^ 


0*6 


2' i ! 3'a 


902 


848 


6 










12'0 


"'3 










07 07 


2.359 


2,295 


3 


2o'6 




107 ... 


S«'3 


3a\1 


>'3 




°7 


'.'.'. 


a'o I'll 


1,687 


1,629 


3 


22-8 


22'I 


6-5 r,-j 


=9'3 


38-3 


'"4 


'"4 


o"4 


"■4 


1,042 


916 


12 










18*1 


07 










an rt 


912 


S63 


5i 




... 






97 


o'l 




... 






O'O , O'fl 




39 














6-i 


... 








... 


o'4 


2,179 


2,136 


2 


I5-8 


'5'5 


7'3 


?•' 


23" 1 


23'6 


10 


fa 


■-■5 


°'4 


'"S 


14 


1,243 


1,176 


54 








9-8 


9'3 










07 o'C 


2..C37 
940 


2,592 

S89 


'4 

54 


1 6-5 


i'o-j 


4'3 1 4"i 


30*8 
12-3 


204 
"'5 


11 


i'i 


B* 


i? 


0*8 ; o'S 


1,768 


',7.34 


2 , 


I8-5 


■8 : 3 


4'4 4'a 


32-g 


ITS 


'3 


>"3 


03 


o'J 


1-0 . 1* 


882 


833 


54 


... 






,«- 


iro 


I0 '4 










D'S <>"i 


'.977 


1,899 


4 


'7'9 


'7'' 


67 


c ; s 


34 '6 


2j'6 


14 


1'3 


o's 


°J 


I? 


I'M 


46 


43 












_ 




07 


07 


ci 


01 


(TO 


o'S 


694 


657 


5 










9'4 


S-9 










07 


07 


>,9>3 


1.S54 


3 


ig'6 


19-1 


6'4 


8'( 


26'0 


253 


3 


SI 


°"5 


o*5 


3'0 


''9 


38 


36 


5 














0*3 


0*3 


0-8 


0*7 




749 














8 'i 












«rt 


M34 


'.389 


"3 


127 


123 


3-S 


3'5 


m 


1 '3 


Ti 


o'j 


°"3 


is ; «'s 


34. 


33 


3 




... 










o'S 


o'S 


03 


o*a 


07 


07 


748 






I0'2 




I'D 




112 




oB 




O'l 




o'g 




'.677 


1,614 


4 


17-5 


i6'9 


7"5 


7'a 


25-0 


34-. 


''5 


i'5 


07 


o-O 


ri 


i'i 


604 


■■ 


... 


5"9 




05 




6-4 




» 


■ •• 






o'4 


■■ 


1,726 


',657 


4 


1 2'3 


J 20 


5'9 S'S 


18-2 


>rs 


0-8 


04 


<•■■# 


i'j rs 


So 


79 


1 








13-8 


i.r f: 


... 


... 






trl 


1 


66 


63 








„. ' ,„ 












... 




... 


37 


36 


... 








... 






... 




... 


... 


... 


... 


103 


99 


4 


>3'3 


127 


4"5 


4'3 


.7-8 


17-0 


- I 


O'l 




... 


o'l 


1 


20 


20 










... 


4 '4 


4'4 


... 




... 




... 




154 


14S 


4 


25'3 


24\5 


8-9 


a 


34'2 


33'9 


04 


C4 


O'l 


0*1 


o'S 


0*5 


'57 


»5° 


4 


•37 


13-3 


3'o 


167 


l6'o 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


- 



-1,000.— H. R. 



NOTES ON 



SAL IN BENGAL 



By 



A. L. MclNTIRE, i.F.S. 

Conservator or Forests, Boneal 




CALCUTTA 

SUPERINTENDENT GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA 

igog 



NOTES 

ON 

SAL IN BENGAL. 



By A. 1,. MclNTlRE. I.P.S., 
Conservator of Forests. Bengal. 



1. Distribution. — SSI is the principal forest tree in Jiengal, and 
occurs in greater or less abundance iu all oi (lie Bengal Government 
forests, with the exception of the maritime swamp forests in the 
Simdarbans ami of I lie hill foretts of the Darjeoling district, which 
are over .'5,1)00 feet in elevation. 

Thus it occurs in places with greatly differing soils mid climate, 
ami the various kinds of localities iu which it grows may he con- 
venient.ly divided into four types, riz.- - 

(ii.) Yirji jn run rnlilr hictilihrs, where the .toil is deep, fresh ami 
fertile from a forest point of view and the rainfall i> 
considerable or heavy, say (id inches to 1200 inches u 
year; such are (i ) the sal-producing areas in the Kurseong 
terai and on .some of the. most favourable slopes in 
the Tista valley, (ti) the valley type areas iu SJnghbbinu 
and (///) the high lying valleys, elevation 1,100 feet to 
1,500 feet, in Angul. 
(b) Faroiira/i/c nr fmr/i/ fiirnurahlv /orn/iliet, where though 
the summer is hot and dry and the rainfall is only mod- 
erate, +. r ) inches to Go inches, whilst, the surface soil in 
often shallow, other conditions, such as fertility, the 
absence of frosts and permeability of the sub-soil arc 
favourable; for instance, half valley type and a con- 
siderable part of the hill type areas in Singh Id mm, the 
bulk of the sal-producing areas in the centra] parts of 
the Angul reserves, the southern forests in Viiri 
and Sarobalpur, and most of the Months' 1'uiguiias 

I) 



2 MCINTIBE : NOTES ON SAL 

sal forests. Though they are subjected to heavier rain- 
fall and ditfer in some other respects, the bulk of the 
sal-produeing areas rn the hill forests of Darjeeling may 
be included in this type. 
(c) Unfavourable localities, where must conditions are as for 
type (b), but, either the surface soil is unfertile from a 
forest point of view or the sub-soil is impervious; for 
instance, the Northern Puri and Sambalpur forests, 
most of the low-lying plains and valleys in Angul, and 
parts of thi' hill type areas in Singhbhum. 
(<Z) Unfavourable Localities, where, other conditions being as 
for type (b) or type (c), severe frosts from time to time 
occur; for instance, nearly the whole of the sal-producing 
area in Palamau and Hazaribagh. 

As, within limits, the fertility of the soil from a forest point 
of view varies with the treatment it receives, the above distinc- 
tions are not in all cases of a permanent character. Under good 
management some localities of type (b) may improve to such an 
extent that it may become possible to regard them "as of type (a), 
and so on. 

2. Production of flowers, seed and- seedlings. — Sal flowers more 
or less profusely almost every year. The flowers begin to appear in 
March just after or just before the fall of the last of the leaves of 
the previous year, and the new crop of leaves appears just after ot 
along with the flowers. The maturing of ■ good crop of seed is, 
however, often prevented by unfavourable weather, and only one 
year in three, about, is a really good seed year. 

Sal seed ripens and falls to the ground in .Tune or July. When 
it falls in wet weather the. seed germinates in a few days, but when 
its fall is followed by a long continued drought, all or almost all 
of the seed dries up and fails to germinate. Tn continuously wet 
weather some of the seed may germinate before it falls from the 
parent trees. 

Ral seed which falls in favourable weather appears to germin- 
ate freely in all places except those where the soil is covered with 
a very dense tmdergrowth. But in dry localities where the soil is 
poor and there is little or no shelter from the sun all or nearly all 
of the seedlings die very rapidly, whilst in a damp climate the com- 
bined eflVets of a fairly complete tree canopy and of an undergrowth 
of shrubs or herbaceous plants prove equally destructive. But even 
in relatively dry tracts, when rainfall j<? well distributed and tbe 



IN BENGAL. 3 

soil is completely or partially sheltered by trees or undergrowth, 
numbers of seedlings survive their first cold weather ami the follow- 
ing summer and, if subsequent conditions are favourable to their 
development, in the end grow into saplings and trees. In due damp 
tracts, sal seedlings are more likely to sutler during their first year 
from excessive shade either of the tree canopy or of the undergrowth, 
or from both, than from exposure and drought. But even in tkesu 
tracts seedlings survive in considerable numbers in all but the 
wettest or shadiest places for more than a year. 

In dry tracts it usually happens that, to begin with, the above- 
ground parts of sal seedlings die down during the cold weather or 
summer, whilst the roots retain their vitality and fend up new 
shoots when the next ruins begin, and in many places this dying 
down of the upper parts and putting forth of new Rhoois by the roots 
must be repeated annually for a number of years before the plants 
can acquire sufficient strength to send up shoois which can persist 
through a hot weather. But this drying up of the upper parts 
appears to be the exception in the Terai, and it is probably far from 
universal in other localities of type (a). 

When sal seedlings have been kept alive for one year their sub- 
sequent development depends on various conditions. Tn a relatively 
dry climate they nearly everywhere tolerate a fairly heavy shade, 
whilst they benefit from a certain amount of cover, such as is sup- 
plied by an iuferrupled canopy ol trees or a light undergrowth, till 
they are well established saplrags 8 feet or 10 feet high. In the 
hottest situations they bear and benefit from a fairly complete cover. 
But in damp climates, for instance in the Terai, any complete cover 
is destructive to sal seedlings over 1 or 2 years old: and though 
seedlings will in many cases survive for many years under n mod- 
erately dense, shade, they in such conditions wake very little up- 
ward growth and gradually lose their vitality. In fact, it is pro- 
bably the case in the Terai that shade can be only useful to sal seed- 
lings over 1 year old in an indirect manner, ?'.<\, by helping to keep 
down weeds and creepers; and as some of the. Inst described planils 
stand shade better than sul seedlings, this indirect use o? snide 
does not always benefit the latter. 

3. Rates of growth and cxfloitahle xizcx. — In dry localities sa' 
seedlings may take 10 years or more to form persistent shoots, and 20 
years or more from the time of germination to become established 
saplings 8 feet or 10 feet high. But in the Terai ^hen sal seodliiigR 
are not kept back by shade or creepers, and if other conditions are 

d2 



4 MCINTIRE : NOTES ON SAI 

favourable 1 , they should be 9 inches to 18 inches high when they 
are 2 years old, and they should become well established saplings 
8 feet to 10 feet high 121 G to 10 years. 

Having reached Ihis stage the growth of the plants till they 
attain a girth of about 3 feet, should be rapid or fairly rapid, whe- 
ther the climate is damp or dry. But much depends on the quality 
of the soil and immediate surroundings, such as the presence 
or absence of overhead shade or creepers and the density of the 
crop. No far as can be ascertained from existing sample plots the 
period necessary for such a sapling to grow into a tree 3 feet in girth 
ranges from. 20 to 30 years in the Terai to 80 or 90 years in local- 
ities of types (c) and (d) which are not exceptionally unfavourable. 
The average girth increment of trees which are between 3 feet 
and G feet or 7 feet in girth varies greatly. In the case of trees 
growing in exceptionally unfavourable positions in localities of 
type (c) or (d) this increment may be reduced to insignificance be- 
fore a girth of 4 feet is attained, and trees placed in slightly less 
unfavourable conditions grow very slowly indeed whilst their girth 
increases from 3 feet to 4 feet G inches or 5 feet, and they generally 
begin to demy before attaining a girth of 6 feet. But leaving out 
of consideration these exceptionally unfavourable places, the girth 
increment at this stage may be said to vary from a third to half an 
inch a year in localities of types (b), (c) and (d) and from six- 
tenths to one inch or over in localities of type (a). Thus in the best 
parts of the Terai trees may attain 6 feet in girth in 50 to 60 years, 
exclusive of the time required for the growth of a sapling 8 feet 
to 10 feet high. In the valley type areas in Singhbhum the corre- 
sponding period probably varies between 100 and 140 years, whilst 
in ordinary localities of type (b) it probably varies between 140 
and 180 years. In ordinary localities of types (c) and (d) it is pro- 
bable that only a small proportion of the trees attain girths of 6 feet 
or over, and that trees which do attain such' a girth are xisually over 
200 years old. 

The above remarks only apply to well grown trees which have 
reasonable or ample space for the development of their crowns. 
Suppressed or partly suppressed trees grow very slowly indeed, 
even in favourable localities. In the Bhamanpokri sample plot 
in the Terai, there are suppressed trees of which the yearly girth 
increment during 25 years has averaged less than a tenth of an inch. 
In considering the sizes to which' sal trees should be allowed to at- 
tain before (hey are felled, it is necessary to take into account 



In bengaI. g 

risks of decay. As a rule in localities of type (a) few trees decay 
before they attain 7 feet in girth and many trees attain girths of 
9 feet or over before they begin to decay. But in localities of type. 
(h) most of the trees begin to decay before they attain a girth of 7 
feet, whilst in localities of types (c) and (d) decay generally sets 
in before a girth of 6 feet is attained. These remarks are based 
on observations of crops which during the greater part of their 
existence have suffered from frequent fires and other abuses. It is 
possible or probable that trees grown in crops which are well pro- 
tected throughout their existence will be liable to decay at com- 
paratively early ages. Decay is greatly helped by slow growth or 
want of vigour which has in the past often been due to fires, over- 
grazing and the like. 

4. Methods of treatment of crops grown from seed. — Like most 
other kinds of trees sal produces the best timber when it is grown 
in forests or complete groups. Though, as lias been shown, more 
or less cover is useful or necessary for the establishment of a crop 
of sal saplings, after this stage has been reached cover is generally 
harmful. In most places groups consisting of about equal aged 
or equal sized saplings, poles or trees, that is to say, regular groups, 
are preferable to irregular groups in which the component tree* 
are of widely differing sizes or ages. In regular groups sal may 
be grown pure, that is, by itself or mixed with other suitable spe- 
cies. But in either case, to obtain the best possible results, (he crop 
should at all stages be complete without being dense enough to pre- 
vent a reasonable development of the crowns of the trees which 
compose it. So far as is known the density of the canopy should 
be greater in the earlier stages, that is, till the trees are 2 feet <> 
inches or 4 feet in girth, according to the locality, than in the later 
stages of the crop; for poles or young trees support density better 
than older trees, and density in the early stages secures the early 
death and fall of the side branches, and the formation of long boles 
of clean timber free of knots. It is believed that thinnings of this 
kind should usually begin when the dominant poles an- 1 foot G 
inches to 2 feet in girth, when the number of stems should be 2">0 
to 300 to the acre, and should be continued at intervals of 5 to 15 
years till the trees are 4 feet to 5 feet, or 3 feet to 4 feet in girth, 
according to the locality and the exploitable size or age adopted. 
From this stage, till the crop is nearly ready for regeneration, it 
probably pays to give the trees which are expected to form the final 
crop a greater amount of room ; but care should always be exercised 



U MCiiVXIEE : NOTES ON SAJL 

to avoid making large holes in the canopy and encouraging the 
establishment of a deu.se undergrowth, such as would greatly in- 
terfere with regeneration. So far as can be judged from incom- 
plete observations, the number of stems should be reduced to about 
21H) to the acre when the trees are 2 feet to 2 feet 6 inches in girth, 
00 or TO to the acre when they are 4 feet to 5 feet in girth and 
about 40 to the acre when they are 6 feet to 6 feet 6 inches or 7 
feet in. girth. 

The treatment of mixed, regular crops containing a considerable 
proportion of sal should be very similar, but in many cases it is 
desirable that in these thinnings should begin at an earlier stage 
to prevent the suppression of sal by inferior species which have 
a more rapid rale of growth, and the thinnings should always bear 
on the inferior species rather than on sal. But the inferior species 
should not be thinned out to such an extent as to seriously inter- 
rupt the canopy. 

In short, sal forests, grown from seed, from which it is desired 
to obtain the largest passible yield of timber of a high quality, 
should be managed under the regular method. Actually all sal 
forests in Bengal which are managed with a view to the production 
of large trees are worked under the selection method or under im- 
provement fellings. This is necessary, as the crop is generally 
mixed and irregular. The supply of large-sized sal trees is com- 
paratively small and consists of trees scattered throughout the 
forests, most of the existing trees of large sizes being of species 
other thau sal, for which there if little demand. In these circum- 
stances attempts to regenerate compact blocks of large sizes would 
necessitate the cutting of large numbers of trees of inferior kinds, 
which could not be disposed of, and of immature sal trees, and 
would therefore result in serious losses. It is at present sought to 
improve the crop of sal by uncovering and keeping free from 
creepers young growth of sal wherever found, trees of inferior 
species which are suppressing sal being sold if purchasers can be 
found for them or cut or girdled, and an outturn of sal timber is 
in the meantime obtained by the cautious cutting of the largest 
sized ur defective sal trees in selection or improvement fellings. It 
is Imped that this treatment will eventually lead in most places to 
the establishment of more, or less regular groups of sal to which the 
regular method, or something closely resembling that method, can 
be applied. 

For the selection fellings a minimum exploitable diameter of 2 
feet, or girth of t) feet, has usually been adopted, and the fellings 



ttH BENGAL. 1 

are so regulated that the stock of exploitable trees may be kept up 
or more than kept up. With fellings so regulated it should not 
generally be necessary to fell sound trees which are still promising 
till they are 6 feet (i inches or G feet 9 inches in girth. In some 
forests, in fact in nearly all localities of types (c) and (d) and in 
some localities of type (o), there is reason to believe that such a 
minimum exploitable size will be found to be excessive. Compara- 
tively early decay or an early falling oft' in the girth increment 
will probably make it undesirable to attempt to grow in such forests 
trees with girths exceeding 4 feet, 4 feet (j inches, or 5 feel, as the 
case may be. But forests of this kind are at present so abnormally 
stocked that accurate study of their possibilities is impracticable. 
In the Terai it may eventually be found desirable to raise the mini- 
mum exploitable girth to 7 feet or even T feet 6 inches. 

5. Coppice, — So far only the production and treatment of sal 
trees which have been raised from seed and are uiantgvd with a 
view to the production of heavy timber have been considered. He- 
sides reproducing itself from seed sal coppices well, at least out- 
side very damp localities, (hat is to say, saplings and jaang trees 
less than 40 years or so old, when cut within a foot or (i inches oft 
the ground, send out. coppice shoots, which' usually leave the parent 
stem below ground level and. rapidly form independent root systems. 
"When a well established seedling, half an inch or so in diameter, 
is cut back, the resulting shoot grows with only ordinary rapidity, 
attaining a girth of about G inches in 10 years, and is soon indistin- 
guishable from any other seedling, and except that, their growth 
in the first few years is usually more rapid, coppice shoots from 
the stumps of saplings 1 inch to 2 inches or even 3 inches in dia- 
meter are very similar. But coppice shoots from the stumps of 
poles or small trees Up to 8 inches, or in some cases .1 foot in dia- 
meter, usually possess characteristics which distinguish them from 
trees grown from seed throughout their existence. Coppice shoots 
from such stumps have a very rapid rate of growth to begin with. 
In the first year they attain heights of G feet to 10 fret, and by the 
time they are 10 years old the leading stems are usually a foot or 
over in girth. It is believed that from about this point the girth 
increment falls off to a very marked extent, especially on a poor 
soil, and so far as is known the period necessary to grow, from 
coppice, poles about 1 foot D inches or 2 feet in girth varies between 
20 and -10 years, according to conditions. Coppice shoots of this 
description do not usually grow into good trees of large size. From 
the time they attain girths ranging from 2 feet to 4 feet, according 



HCINXLKE : -VOXfcB U* j»ii 

to circumstances, they appear to grow more slowly than seedling 
tre«B of equal ages, and they appear to be more subject to early 
decay than the latter. It was at one time supposed that sal trees 
of coppice origin did not produce fertile seed. But this appears to 
have been a mistake. Reproduction from coppice cannot be util- 
ised to any great extent except -in places where the nature of the de- 
mand or of the soil, or of the climate makes the production of small 
poles and firewood the chief object of management. On this 
account coppice-felling of sal forests in Bengal is restricted to a 
few localities where the exploitable age or felling rotations adopted 
vary between lb' and 30 years. Wherever it has been introduced 
this kind of management is recent and is actually a conversion of 
more or less irregular forests into coppice. In these circumstances 
the forests to which the method is applied are not very suitable for 
coppicing, sal trees of the most suitable sizes for coppicing, i.e., 
1 foot to 1 foot 6 inches or 2 feet in girth, being comparatively 
scare 1 . But seedlings are generally abundant, and though shoots 
from these seedlings arc not likely to attain useful sizes in the first 
rotation, by the end of it most of them should be capable of putting 
forth, after they have been cut back, very strong coppice shoots. 

Thus, by the end of the second coppice rotation all of these 
forests should be very well stocked for the application of the cop- 
p'ee system, and the yield -of the coppice fellings should show a 
uia'i keel increase. 

Accurate observations to show when ski trees begin to lose the 
power of coppicing have not been carried out, but there is no reason 
to suppose that any marked loss of such power occurs before the 
trees or coppice shoots are 80 years old. When sal trees instead of 
being cut at or near ground level are felled so as to leave stumps 
a foot or more in height, shoots mostly begin on the top of the 
stump and generally fall when this stump decays. 

In the dampest parts of Bengal, i.e., in the Terai and in the 
Tista valley, sal is a bad coppicer. 

b. Firv-ynitvclion and its results. — In Bengal fire has been the 
principal cause, of injury to sal forests ; but the effects of fire on 
sal differ widely in accordance with local conditions, much depend- 
ing on the age and condition of the trees, the amount of inflammable 
material present on the ground and on its relative dryness. 
In a complete crop of sal (trees over 2 feet in girth) when there is 
little inflammable material except a moderate covering of fallen 
leaves, a single fire can do very little damage, especially if it, 'occurs 
early in the dry season or when, owing to comparatively recent rain, 



tk BENGAi. 9 

the material in question is not at its most inflammable stage. But 
even under such favourable conditions repeated fires must generally 
lead to the impoverishment of the soil and to a reduction of Ihe girth 
increment, and they must also greatly increase risks of premature 
decay. Where inflammable material abounds a single fire, occur- 
ring in the middle of the hot weather, causes lasting injury to all 
or most of the large-sized trees and kills down to the roots all or 
most of the small-sized ones. In sal coppice only one year old, 
practically all of the shoots are destroyed by almost any tire, and 
one. year's growth is lost. As the coppice grows older its liability 
to damage from fire decreases, especially if the production of inflam- 
mable material is kept down by grazing, fodder-cutting, etc. And 
usually sal coppice which is over three years old can, if the produc- 
tion of inflammable material is kept down, be burnt early in the 
spring, as the leaves fall, without immediate, noticeable injury. 
Possibly when coppice which is worked for the supply of small stir.l;s 
or poles, 5 to 10 years old, is burnt in this way (lie production of 
wood is not adversely affected. But such burning must, nearly al- 
ways tell severely on the quality and amount of the outturn where 
it is sought to grow large coppice, 21) to 80 years old. Generally 
it may be remarked that the effects of fire to some extent depend on 
local conditions. In fresh situations where the soil is fertile from 
a forest point of view sal trees may attain large sisws without be- 
coming unsound, and reproduction may continue in a fashija in 
spite of frequent fires. Some observers, drawing their deductions 
from observations of exceptionally well situated areas, have come 
to the conclusion that fires are not harmful to sal foreata. But the 
incorrectness of such a conclusion is well-illustrated by the results 
of a careful examination of the Singhbhnm reserves, which was car- 
ried out by Mr. Haines from 1902 to 19(14. Up to about J 884 then 
forests had been burnt, whenever they became dry enough to burn, 
but except in places which had been jhumed and in a few relatively 
small areas which contained particularly good trees, practically 
nothing had been cut in them before this examination, i'ire pro- 
tection had been attempted between 1884 and 1902, but had not been 
very successful. Mr. Haines found that out of 442,649 acres : — 

(a) 20,650 acres, or about 5 per cent., was stocked with well- 

grown trees or had till recently contained well-grown 
trees ; 

(b) 32,768 acres, or about 7 per cent., contained a crop of mod- 

erately grown sal trees which were considered to be to 
a large extent unfit to yield timber for export; 



10 MCINTIEB: NOTES ON SAL 

(c) 21,192 acr&s, or about 5 per cent., consisting of areas which 

had been previously cultivated, contained more or less 
promising young growth oi' sal, of which the establish- 
ment had been largely due to partially successful fire- 
protection in the previous 20 years; 

(d) 314, 303 acres, or 71 per cent., only contained a very scat- 

tered crop of ill-formed and more or less unsound sal 
trees of great ages but of small or moderate sizes, such 
advance growth as existed being entirely the result of 
fire-protection. 

In («) resistance to fires has been greater than in other parts of 
rhe forests, as the soil is comparatively fertile and as, owing to 
their greater freshness, areas containing growth of this type were 
less inflammable than other parts of the forests. Still the crop of 
sal found growing on these areas was very far from perfect, and 
the total amount of sound timber obtained from them has probably 
not been more than half of the amount they would have yielded if 
they had been continuously fire-protected. Under fire- protection 
the reproduction of sal in these areas has greatly improved, and a 
promising young growth of sal is establishing itself in most of the 
other parts of the forests; and it is already clear that this new crop 
will be of quite a different class to the original one. In fact, whilst 
protection from fire is nearly everywhere essential for the develop- 
ment of sal seedlings into sound, well-formed trees of large sizes, 
so far us is known fire-protection can only be harmful to sal in an 
indirect manner, that is to say, through the help it gives to creepers 
and other competitors and enemies of sal. 

7. Competitors of sdl.—^&a far as is at present known, the growth 
of inferior species of trees and creepers, which follows the successful 
fire-protection of sal-producing forests which are not completely 
canopied, is a serious obstacle to the establishment of a young crop 
of sal only in places where the rainfall is very heavy, i.e., 100 
inches a year or more, or where, though the rainfall is moderate, 
other conditions are exceptionally favourable to a profuse growth 
of all kinds of forest plants or weeds. Elsewhere, though 
the places where creepers do not sooner or later require 
to be checked appear to be the exception, and the out- 
ting or destruction by other means of trees of inferior 
species which either dominate young sal-trees or reproduc- 
tion of sal, or take up space in the canopy which is required for the 
development of the crowns of about equal sized sal trees, is from time 



1S BENGAL. II 

to time necessary, .such operations are of a' simple and cheap kind 
and the necessity oi carrying them out is a very minor drawback 
in comparison with the benefits derived from fire-protection. In 
the dampest places, that is to say in the Terai, the greater part oi 
the sal-producing area in the hills of the Darjeeling district, and 
even in the most fertile valleys in Angul, the profuse growth oi 
trees of inferior species, weeds and creepers which follows successful 
fire-protection is a very serious obstacle to the reproduction of sal. 
Though it is a general rule that in most localities of this description 
fire-protection in the first instance favours the establishment of re- 
production of sal, after a time, if nothing except fire-protection is 
attempted, the growth of other plants becomes so profuse that any 
additional sal seedlings which come uj> are choked, and many or 
most of the sal saplings or poles which established themselves in. the 
early days of fire-protection succumb to creepers. It is now being 
sought to ascertain whether the tendency, under continuously suc- 
cessful fire-protection, of the inferior kinds of plaids to extermin- 
ate sal in this way can be counteracted by any practicable system 
oi cleaning, weeding and creeper-cutting. The point is to discover 
whether with the help of such operations, repeated every year till 
the young sal is out of danger, the sal seedlings which still make 
their appearance in fair numbers can be enabled to grow up into 
a crop of promising saplings and poles. When a canopied crop, 
which mainly or entirely consists of such saplings or poles, is 
formed, the risk of destruction by inferior kinds oi trees, weeds and 
creepers is greatly lessened ii it is not altogether removed. Whilst 
it is admitted by nearly all foresters that ii forests of this descrip- 
tion are allowed to be burnt indiscriminately, as they were burnt 
before they were fire-protected, good results cannot be obtained, it 
is supposed by some that burning might be regulated in such man- 
ner as to be made a means of keeping in check the competing plants 
without permitting the fires to put a stop to the establishment of 
sal seedlings and their development into promising poles; and it -,s 
possible that experience will prove that this opinion is correct so 
far as certain descriptions of ground are concerned. But trust- 
worthy experiments in the regulated use of fire to assist the repro- 
duction of sal have not been carried out, and there is reason to be- 
lieve that, in th» Terai at least, such experiments would no! bo suc- 
cessful unless they were accompanied by improvement fellings of 
a more or less arduous and costly nature, whilst they would neces- 
sarily r lead to a considerable amount oi injury to the existing crop 
of sal. 



15 



ttCINTIHE : KOTES ON SAJL 



Hence in the Terai it is sought to improve the reproduction of 
5ftl by making improvement fellings or cleanings, and weeding the 
seedlings which are uncovered by, or come up after such fellings 
every year till they are out of danger. Experiments have not yet 
gone far enough to show for how many years such weeding will be 
necessary, but it is supposed that the period will vary between 4 
or 5 and 7 or 8 years. Anyhow, the advance growth of sal which 
V-. established by means of such operations will not be out of danger 
from suppression by weeds and creepers till it forms a canopied 
crop. lu experiments of this description it has been found that 
suppressed and ill-formed sal saplings after they are uncovered by 
the cleanings or improvement fellings take long to recover their vig- 
our, and that it is very difficult to save them from being choked by 
creepers. Tn drier climates it is always desirable to cut back such 
saplings to ground level that they may be replaced by vigorous cop- 
pice shoots. But in the Terai they coppice so indifferently that it 
has not yet been proved to be advantageous to cut them back. 

.It is possible that continued fire-protection will, by encouraging 
the growth of competing plants, have the effect, of making the re- 
production of sal difficult in many places where up to date fire-pro- 
tection has been entirely beneficial to this reproduction ; and it is 
desirable that the effects of fire-protection in all sal forests should 
be the object of continuous observation, that early steps may be 
taken to counteract any unfavourable tendencies to which it may 
give rise. 

8. Creepers. — In regard to creepers it may be observed that 
though these pests are at their worst only in the dampest localities, 
they give more or less trouble in nearly all fire-protected sal forests, 
and they also sometimes cause a considerable amount of harm in 
forests which are not fire-protected. They directly damage seed- 
lings and trees of all sizes by strangling or suppressing them, and 
ihey indirectly damage the crop by occupying a larger or smaller 
proportion of the available space in the canopy. A continuous war 
must be waged against creepers in nearly all sal forests. To begin 
with, it is usually difficult, to do more than work over the forests ">f 
a Division in the course of a few years cutting creepers which are 
damaging sal trees. But when the most urgent work of this kind 
has been accomplished it is generally desirable to wort through 
the forests again, cutting all large creepers, on whatever trees they 
may be growing, with the object of helping a dense canopy of trees 
to form and preventing the seeding of creepers. Nothing checks 
the growth of creepers more effectively than the formation of a dense 



IN BENGAL. 13 

tree canopy. It is not sufficient to cut creepers once. Tlie slumps 
of the cut creepers usually coppice, or fresh creepers take the places 
of those which die after being cut, especially in places where the 
canopy is light or interrupted. Creeper-cutting must ^eaerally 
be repeated at intervals which vary between 3 to 5 years in damp, 
ten years or more in comparatively dry localities, and it is pro- 
bable that it will be, found necessary to continue the operation at 
such intervals in most sal forests in Bengal till they become com- 
pletely canopied. This is apart from creeper-cutting which may be 
necessary as part of the weeding or cleaning required to help re- 
production or advance grow I h of sal iu areas which are under 
regeneration. Such advance growth requires light which also 
encourages the growth of creepers. TTp to the present this growth 
of creepers in areas which have been partially or wholly cleared for 
regeneration has been remarkable only in some localities of type (a) 
where it supplies one of the principal arguments for yearly weeding 
till the young sal is well established. But it is quite possible that as 
the soil in other localities improves under protection, the damage 
occasioned in them, by creepers to young s;'il will tend to increase. 

9. Grazintj. — So for as is known the grazing of kine and sheep 
is not directly harmful to sal except when it is in the small seedling 
stage, when cattle tread down and destroy, but do not usually eat 
up, the seedlings. Grazing is indirectly injurious to sal forests as, 
when it is heavy enough, it results in the hardening of the soil and 
a loss of its forest fertility. Though, where other conditions arc 
favourable, considerable numbers of sal seedlings establish them- 
selves in forests which are lightly or moderately grazed, in heavily 
grazed forests sal seedlings are nearly always rare, and where, ether 
conditions are unfavourable a moderate amount of gracing mny 
suffice to practically stop the reproduction of sal from seed. Coppice 
reproduction of sal is much less easily damaged by cattle than re- 
production from seed and, if the crop which is coppice felled is 
suitably stocked for the purpose, even heavy grazing does not neces- 
sarily prevent the. formation of a satisfactory crop of coppice, poles. 
But when a coppice crop is open to grazing from the outset the cop- 
picing of many stumps, which arc either too old or too youu^ to 
coppice vigorously, is nearly always prevented ; hence in forents 
managed under the coppice system which are continuously open 
to grazing the density of the crop and the production of wood tend 
to decline. The closure of each coupe for 3 to 6 years, Recording 
to circumstances, after its coppice felling, does much to assnrei the 
permanency of the crop. But such an amount of closure cannot 



14 MonrrraE : notes on sin 

everywhere ensure the establishment of sufficient numberB of sil 
seedlings for the replacement of stumps which die without coppic- 
ing. No experiments appear to have been carried out for determin- 
ing the effects of the deterioration on the soil, through grazing, on 
the rate of growth or increment in crops of sal poles or trees which 
are too large to be directly injured by cattle. But general obser- 
vations seem to point to a conclusion that the rate of growth is there- 
by materially lessened. Usually one of the most serious conse- 
quences of grazing is that the practice leads to forest fires, as the 
herdsmen are often careless, and also as the burning of forest land 
is generally believed to improve grazing. 

10. Front. — Sal is very sensitive to frost, but fortunately the 
only sil forests in Bengal in which severe frosts occur are those 
of the Palam&u and Hazaribagh districts. In these, sal seedlings 
■uhich establish themselves in depressions are repeatedly damaged 
or destroyed down to their roots by frost. Protection by the cover 
of larger trees sometimes helps to save them from damage. But in 
exceptionally cold winters, as in 1904-1905, frosts are intense 
enough to kill or damage small sal trees which, on such occasions, 
afford little or no protection to young growth which they domin- 
ate. Owing to the repeated destruction of their side branches by 
frost, the Sid trees in runny parts of the Palam.au reserves have as- 
sumed peculiar and characteristic shapes. 

11. Jn-ser-t pestx.— -The caterpillars or larva? of several kinds of 
inserts damage sal either by eating the leaves or by boring into the 
wood. The temporary loss of leaves from such cause, when it is 
anything like complete, usually lertds to a temporary reduction in 
the rate of growth. The most common borer generally confia-is 
its attention to dead or fallen trees from which the bark has not been 
removed. But it sometimes attacks and kills green trees. 

12. Artificial reproduction. — For various reasons this has re- 
ceived very little study. Owing to its rapid germination it is not 
easy to obtain sal seed for this purpose, and owing to their long tap 
root and temperament sal seedlings are difficult to transplant. More- 
over in all the dryer localities, when artificially reproduced sal can 
be saved from drying up, it is long before well established seed- 
lings or sapliugs are produced, and in the damper localities it is 
difficult to save the seedlings from suppression. For all of these 
reasons, and as where conditions have been suitable little or no 
difficulty bus been experienced in obtaining sufficient natural re- 
production, it has not been thought necessary to give much atten- 
tion to the artificial reproduction of sal. But the importance of 



IN BENGAL. 15 

the subject will probably increase as the forests develop. The 
most hopeful experiment made so far is one which was carried out 
in Puri in 19U7, when small baskets, filled with earth, were placed 
under seed-laden trees, the seed being allowed to fall into and 
germinate in them. When these seedlings were a few inches high 
the baskets, with the seedlings in them, were put out in the places 
it was desired to plant. 

13. Products of sal trees. — Sal is of course chiefly valuable for 
its timber. But the sap-wood rots rapidly under exposure and is 
often eaten by insects when it is not exposed, whilst the heart- 
wood does not display great resistance to exposure, and even when 
it is not exposed is apt to split and warp badly, unless it is well 
seasoned before it is put in use. Though the heart-wood of old 
trees is supposed to be superior in durability to that of yonng 
ones, the centra] parts of old trees which are quite sound are very 
liable to split in drying, and in sawing logs obtained from very 
old but sound trees into sleepers or other scantlings it is generally 
desirable to reject a central wedge 6 inches to 9 inches square at 
the thick end of the log. Green sal poles, under 2 feet say in 
girth, are of very little real use for any purpose, as they contain 
very little heart-wood; but they are often preferred, especially for 
mine props, to poles of other kinds, which should prove more dur- 
able, probably on account of their straight-new. On account of 
the large amount of sap-wood they usually contain, poles or ballahs 
from green sal trees 2 feet- G inches to -1 feet, G inches or 4 feet in 
girth leave much to be desired. But poles or ballahs cut out of 
dead trees which have lost all their sap-wood but have not stood or 
lain long enough in the forests to have begun to decay ore as a 
rule of excellent quality. 

The quality of the sal timber produced in the Darjeeling hills 
and also in the Terai differs considerably from that of the Olinta 
Nagpur and Orissa sal. The former is rather lighter, splits law, 
and is generally more durable than the latter. The Darjeeling 
or Terai sal cuts into good planks as well as beams, railway sleepers 
and the like, whilst the Chota "Nagpur and Orisna sal does not usu- 
ally make good planking. How far this inferiority is due to impro- 
per or inadequate seasoning is, however, questionable, for Ihe tim- 
ber appears to be quite satisfactory for boat -building. 

Sal yields a very good firewood and makes very good chnrcoal, 
but it is at present rarely possible in Bengal to dispose of parts of 
trees which will not yield marketable timber. 



16 MCI.VTUlE : NOTES OX SAL IN BENGAL. 

Tin- hark (if sal can hi- used J or tanning or for the preparation 
of tan extracts, 1 nt so fur it has not hecn found pOSSthlo to dispose 
of hark for Mich purposes from Bengal forests. The tree also 
yields ;i resin in which tlicrc was formerly a considerahle trade, 
liut as flic vield of resin is small, and as (lie usual method of ex- 
tract nig it is (d girdle and kill llie trees which are ta|i]ied, its col- 
lection is not now perm itfed. 

1 I. The alio\e note contains statements that no doiilit require 
vcrilicat ion. and it is hoped that such will he made he forest Officers 
in Helical. < >nc of I lie tdiief ohjeets of (lie autlior in writing (lip 
mite is to draw attention to the lack of knowledge and the large 
field lor eni|iiir\ llial exists, and to encourage slinlv of the lorn' 
cond it ions of jj-fowi h. 



OALCDTTA : rRlXTBD UV Sl'l'OT. GOVT. PRINTING, INDU, S, BABT1KQB BTWEET. 




^^^^^^^^^^M 



ttm €&o. 6 



MEMORANDUM 



in 



i£)c6. 



Mechanical Tests of Some Indian Timbers. 



BV 



W. H. EVERETT, B.A, B.B.. M.t.M«h.E„ M.I.E.E. 

/Voikuor of MtchamlaU —4 Hhrtrk*) Saflntfiwf. 
SApur BoglBwrriag Culitt*. 




CALCUTTA i 
OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA. 

i«oe. 



MEMORANDUM 



Mechanical Tests of Some Indian Timbers. 



W. H. EVERETT, B.A., B.E., M.I.Mecta.E., IH.I.E.E, 

frotiMitir at Mictoaaleal ma4 t-ltwicml Btlmmrlag, 
SJbpur EailatrlOf Collf. 




^m 



CALCUTTA i 
OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING. INDIA 



MEMORANDUM 



CAL TESTS OF Sdilli IMIIAN TIMHliRS. 



IV. H. EVERETT, ba.. b.k.. m.i iw«h.E.. m i.e.e. 

1'rpfs.wi itf M.-.-Ium.-.i! juJ Eltflrii'il Emineering, 




CALCUT1 A : 
OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INUIA- 



r tii in ta 
I s , II aKIIN* fl UTRl IT, 



Forest Bulletins previously issued. 



No. i. 1905 . A Note upon the "Bec-llolc" Borer of teak in 

Burma. 



No. 2. 1905, . A Note on the Ouetta Bor'-r [/Eoleslhes sarlus). 



No. 3. 19OJ. . A Note on t In- CfaUgQZSt [Pinus gerardiana) 

l!ark-l!orin<; Beetles nf Zhoh, Baluchistan. 



No. 4. 1906. . Tlir natiit.il growth and artificial pro[>.tL',;i!. ion 

of FUtlS elastics with a description of the 
method of tapping tree, and of preparat ion of 
its rubber for the m;'<ket. 



No. 5. tqoG. . A Noli- on a visit to some European School- 
of Forestry. 



MEMORANDUM 



ON 



MECHANICAL TESTS OF SOME INDIAN TIMBERS, 



p\URINH the last three or four years the Forest Department has sent 
specimens ol many Indian timbers to Silipnr Engineering Collec- 
tor mechanical testing. I have now tested about 100 pieces, out of 
nearly 500 received, and it appears advisable to give some account of 
the results obtained. 

After some consideration I decided to limit the strength tests of 
each specimen to three, viz., shearing along the grain, endwise crushing, 
and bending. Tests ol stiffness have been made during the bending 
tests. Timber never fails in tension ; and tests of transverse crushing 
do not give definite results, as the yielding is gradual. For the 
shearing tests a clamping block was made, after preliminary trials, 
designed to prevent the test piece from bending at the middle and ends, 
thus leaving it no alternative but to shear In preliminary experi- 
ments this apparatus was found to give consistent results on test pieces 
of teak ranging in thickness from \" to 2"; but I adopted 1" as the 
standard thickness for all the tests given below. 

The test pieces for crushing were about 2" square by 4" long, exi cpt 
in a few cases where the specimen sent was less than 2" thick. In every 
case, the test piece was square in section and of length double the side 
of the square. 

The bending tests were made on the full section of specimen sent, 
mostly about 3^" by 2" but more in many rases ; and the tipan adopted 



2 MEMORANDUM OS MECHANICAL TESTS OF SOME INDIAN TIMBERS. 

was 4.' between supports, the load being applied in the middle. The 
supports as well as the pressure foot are designed to avoid damage to 
the test piece by local crushing. 

k is a familiar fact that the strength of timber depends considerably 
on its humidity: parttv seasoned wood \vi h 2Q°/ of moisture has only 
about \ of the strength of well-seasoned wood with 1 o c / of moisture. 
Nearly all the present specimens have been seasoned indoors in the 
climate of Calcutta for two years or more, and are therefore on a fairly 
ecjual foe ling as regards se; soning. Two or three pieces which were 
tested for humidity were- found to have about ro / of moisture, but it 
was not feasible to tc*i all the specimens for this properly. 

In considering the results it is convenient to use teak as a standard 
of reference in comparison ; and it will be seen that the strongest timbers 
have rather more than double the strength and stillness of teal;, while 
none, on the list have, less than half that of teak. To aid comparison with 
non-Indian timbers the highest results are here given from tests made 
01187 specimens of wood grown in various British colonics, the tests 
being conducted by Prof. Unwin: — - 

Shearing 1^46 (lignum vita', from Jamaica). 

Crushing 5-96 (Sneeze wood, lrom Natal). 

Bending 952 (Reel milkwoocl, from Natal . 

Stiffness 1.4G.S (Mora wood, from British Guiana). 
Corresponding ro-ults from tests of 32 American timbers, c arriccl out 
under the direction tf the Government of the I'nited States, mav also 
be of interest in this connection. These again arc the highest figures, 
but each is the average of manv tests ; • 

Shearing 058 (Cedar elm). 

numbing 4'y (i'igntit hickory). 

Bending 8'4 ( Do. ). 

Stiffness 1,220 ( Do. ). 

These results are all gneu in tons per square inch. 

Comparing with the present results, it will be noticed that three of 
the Indian timbers break the record for shearing strength, two for 
crushing strength, ami two for bending strength. One Indian timber 
is about equal in stiffness to the best American w ood, and is surpassed 
by two in Prof. I'nwin's list of $7. 

With regard to (he considerable differences in strength or stiffness 
for two or more specimens of the same kind of timber, these are not 



MEMORANDUM ON MECHANICAL rESTS OF SOME INDIAN TIMBERS, j 

due to experimental errors but to actual differences in the pieces tested. 
'I he accuracy of the results can In- safely relied upon within i°/ in lite 
case of (he strength tests and within about 5°/ 3 in the figures for stiff- 
ness. Tiiis possible error in the stiffness is chiefly owing to want of 
exact proportionality between lead and deflection tor timber, which is 
never quite homogeneous and thus bends irregularly. 

The strength is given in tons per square inch, and the stiffness is 
Young's modulus ot elasticity in the same units. In this respect I have 
I allowed Umvin. h'or comparison with the co-cllh ieii( ol bending 
strength " I 1 " given in Gamble's " Manual of Indian Timhei,-. " for some 
woods, the present results [or bending strength should lie muhmliedbv 
1 24. _| ; and the present figures for stiffness should he multiplied In V'Q 
to compare with the corresponding data " K " in the same work. 

For the identifii at ion o! the linilicrs I am indebted to the I'orCBl 
Officers who selected and despati hcd them. A specimen of each 
timber has been kept lor refcrcm e 



i 'I ectona grandis iTrnt) 

Pill' 

-, Ditto 

4 Ditto 

5 Slwrca assanura . 
<> Wlkora indka 

7 1 littd 

s Bacraurea ^ai'iil.'i 
ii Ditto 

10 Dit«o 

it Bischofia jrvvnnir.i 

12 Ditto 

13 Cansrium lirnijalcrM' 



Do. 

Do. 
l>o. 

I.:il.lii[>i|n 

Katli: M|i 

Do. 

D,L 



Kii-arin.: C'juiliini: SliJTectf, 

ht|-.T>t'l ll i.trfn^th itenttme tiilm 

nlon^ tin- atonii tiif htrvu^ili In ntt. ne 

Criiin frniti itOPiiirr lesu, K, 

a^ns I'fr (toils jk-i R-j. iti.i, itniiB(>r 

vi. 111.L bi|. in.). «q. in.). 



ii'faiii 

„ .. 
"■571 

1 

■ ' ■ . 
,i;7 



1 ttj 

.V«< 



.V J 






I'M 

V"5 



. ■■' 
I". 

1 ■ -.. 

>■ -I 



Do. 


o-J&7 


371 


■Vi J 


5'5 


Do. 




3'Kl 


j*98 


... 


Do. 






3'<>J 


JSft 


Do. 


D'fiSo 


-■■/■ 


2't5 


37J 



Memorandum on mechanical tests of some Indian timbers 



22 
23 

'4 

:s 

27 

j8 

29 
3o 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
3S 
39 
4" 



Canarium bengalan:je 
Bauhinia variegata 

Ditto 
Symplocos grandiflora . 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Villeburnoa appendicu- 
lata. 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Casuarina equiyetifolia 
(Camariiia), 

Ditto 

Ditto 
Sapiiulus trifoliatus 

Ditto 

Ditto 
JPteroearpus santalinus 

Ditto 

Ditto 

l-'terocarpus dalbergioi- 
des (Padouk). 
Ditto 

Ditto 
Albuiia Lebbek (Uth.) 

Ditto 

Ditto 
Tcrminalia bialala 

Ditto 

Ditto 



Shearing ' Crushing i Stiffness, 

strength strength Bending from 

along the along the strength bending 

grain grain (tons per tests, h. 

(tons per | (tons per sq. in.). (tons per 
sq. in.). sq. inO- 1 »°,- '■>■)■ 



Kamrup 

Do. 

Do. 
Darang 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Ganjam 

Do. 
Do. 
N. Arcot 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Andamans 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



o'fiij 

o'S7'' 
0-670 
1/4S2 
0-424 
0710 

0"523 

"'493 
0615 I 

' '075 I 

o\Jy3 I 

''240 I 

1 '3 1 o I 

i'OSo I 

u'yi'5 

2'OOU I 

1550 
1-440 

I'lSa 
l'jlu 
1050 
0-835 
l'uju 
o'Koo 
1 '07U 
u-7>jJ 
0S02 



1 


2-30 


"7 s 


1-90 


163 


1-48 


2-07 


2-30 


1-82 



1-95 

4 '39 

4''3 
4-20 

4-t'5 
414 

3'y4 
0-64 
5-44 

0-ij5 
4'S7 
4 '00 
4'oy 
4-50 
4"-'S 
4 '04 
374 
3'7 8 
369 



2-83 
2'44 
(i'S3) 
2'35 
1 77 

J-CJ2 

3'2o 

3*66 
3'43 
fi-oo 

7'37 
foS 



5-32 
0'47 
472 
7'57 
5-57 
S' c 3 
4-43 
6-62 
5'43 
5*5 
G'ljo 
7'70 



243 
235 
C87) 

37' 

224 
367 
3C6 

34 y 

395 
yoo 

93° 
110S 



630 
7 So 
740 
Uoo 
650 
S44 

Coo 

767 

707 
730 

guo 
9C4 
950 



MEMORANDUM ON MECHANICAL TESTS OF SOME INDIAN' TIMBERS. 





Shearing 
strength 
along- thti 

^rain 
(tons per 
sq. in.). 


Crushing 

strength 
alorii; tho 

srrain 
(tons per 
sq. in.). 

37*3 


3t i ndinj4' 
'.trenj-th 
tons per 
sq. in.). 

7-0J 


from 

Ic^Ls, E. 

Uons per 
«|. in.). 


41 


MyrLstica Irya 


Gaertn.) Andaman^ 


o-S7S 


SSo 


42 


Ditto 


■1 


Do. 


0*990 




4-^S 




7^7 


So-) 


43 


Ditto 


• 


Do. 


o'&4-; 




4'57 




7'3S 


■ ;<> 


44 


Diospyros Kurzii (Hicrn.) ' 


Do. 


l'OOO 




378 




4'34 


?.'4 


45 


Ditto 




Do. 


0*990 




4^4 




5'iy 


;y. : » 


4" 


Ditto 


1 


Do. 


U'&jH 




3*93 




5'34 


O/OO 


47 


Murraya exotica . . j 


Do. 


rjjo 




4*55 




700 


7S3 


4N 


Ditto 




Do. 


l'40o 




5'27 




7M9 


89S 


4'J 


Ditto 




Do. 


1 '4110 




4 '4 7 




G*oy 


u8S 


5" 


La^'t-r.stromia 
(Kurz.) 


:iypoicuca 


Do. 


o'S'Ji 




y-t'j 




4'5= ' 


'"7 


5. 


Ditto 




Do. 


078S 




2-Hl 




rjo 


Oro 


iS 


Ditto 




Do. 


"75- 




r&7 




4'lo 


-13" 


53 
54 


1 crminalia 
(RojlIj.) 

Ditto 


proccra 


Do. 

Do. 


0-5J.S 




4''-; 
370 




&3S 

4'1'J 


690 

510 


55 


Ditto 




Do. 


«'<J4o 




4 '54 




S-S4 | 


Sgj 


56 


Alphonsca ventricosa (H. 
1'. & 1 h.). 


Do. 


o'ij^vS 




3'34 




540 


75" 


57 


Ditto 




Do. 


"'5 4 3 




3-9I 




771 


900 


5S 


Ditto 




Do. 


o' 5 Sj 




378 




t» 


702 


59 
Co 


Arlocarpus 
iKoxb.). 

Ditto 


Lakoocha 


Do. 
Do. 


o'i^5 
"7'5 




<*SS 

4'34 




6-82 
5*55 


903 

7S0 


Oi 


Ditto 




Do. 


o"oS<j 


| 


4'45 




8-« 


Ko-> 


C.2 


Calophylluiri 
(Willd.) 


spcctabilc 


Do. 


0768 




rSfi 




3*90 


5i«,i 


63 


Ditto 




Do. 


0*625 




2 ■<"■■ 




4*41) 


510 


04 


Ditto 




Do. 


U7<I2 




I-OK 




i '3 


6uj 


65 


Calophyllum 


nopliylluil 


Do. 


oTft 




■77" 




3'3& 


■43S 


oe 


Ditto 




Uu, 


■ 071x1 




='93 




4SJ 


4'jo 


e 7 


Ditto 




Do. 


U8S2 




3'M 




4'3-i 


4!>o 



MEMORANDUM ON MECHANICAL TESTS OF SOME INDIAN TIMBERS. 









Sheaiing 
Itaagth 
along tht: 


Crushing 

strength 
alon^ the 


Bending 
strength 


Stiffness 

from 
bending 








grain 
(tons per 


grain 
tons par 


[tons per 
sq in.). 


tests, E. 
(tons per 






Andamans 


sq. in.). 
u'oSq 


sq. in.). 


5-So 


sq. in.t. 


GS 


I'oclorarpug bractsata 
(HI.) 


3'4<"> 


f77 


i». 


Ditto 


Do, 


' >'»..-! 


yai 


(Yqf, 


74" 


70 


Ditto 


Do. 


o'"oO 


3'"3 


5 '4-' 


700 


7< 


Mimusops littoralie 
(Kurz). 


Do. 


"'477 


3"ofi 


4"3 


534 


7^ 


Ditto 


Do. 


crS'u 


S'Ss 


'•■51 


7.1" 


7.1 


Ditto 


Do. 


OVSlHI 


3'44 


37" 


"3" 


74 


MirmiKujiS lilen^i (Linn.l 


Do. 


i ' j.Su 


5'lfi 


1 i',T,5 


1.(0.1 


75 


Ditto 


Do. 


r,i" 


4'y- 


1 

lu -ou 


I.lcrf. 


7" 


Ditto 


Do. 


' '39" 


■1*93 


10-48 


f , n 10 


77 


Mesua ferrca (Eirm.) 


Do. 


„-S 7 (, 


6 Co 


H'lS 


r.3..n 


?8 


Ditto 


Do. 


1 'O(H) 


rsw 


0'23 


I.N" 


79 


Ditto 


Do. 


t'tCa 


6"S= 


1 ,or M 


l.lSo 


So 


llopca odorata (Ro.\l>.) , 


Do. 


"'99- 


3'8o 


B-39 


94" 


Si 


Ditto 


Do. 


"737 


4 '32 


?'33 


<>5o 


S3 


Ditto 


Do. 


I'lja 


421 


«'37 


9"3 


S3 


Uoinbax insigne (Wall) 


Do. 


ojgS 


i"7» 


! 3-3. 
i 


49" 


S.1 


Ditto 


Do. 


"'35 - 


i-Co 


=79 


4S.5 


8j 


Ditto 


Do. 


o-.|R8 


C'OI 


r6S 


44" 


ss 


Adcnanthcra pavonini 
(L.) 


Do. 


lMqo 


457 


l.-lf, 


79" 


87 


Ditto 


Do. 


o'goo 


4'43 


1 .. 




5S 


Ditto 


Do. 


<'''J>S 


4'57 


07. 


S.<o 


s» 


Artocarpus Chnplasha 
(Roxb:) 


Do. 


"'55" 


^9 


4 '45 

1 


jSo 


BO 


Ditto 


Do. 


o*$oc 


3 'Jo 


3'13 


4"! 


3»4 


Machilus odoratissim.i 
(Ulie.) 


Darjeeling 


°'555 


ru5 


347 


1 530 


jSi 


Ditto 


Do. 


... 


1'94 


... 




JW 


Ditto 


Do. 

' - 


f'5D'"> 


-'5<> 


, M 


594 



MEMORANDUM ON MECHANICAL TESTS OF SDUE INDIAN TIMBER?. 











Shearing 
strength 
alone th» 


Crushing 
strength 
alon^- the 


Bending 

strength 


stiffness, 

from 
licntlintf 










(Train 


k'rain 


(tons per 


tests, E. 










(tOnS ]HT 


(tons per 


sq. in.\ 


(tons per 










sq. in.). 


sq. in.). 
... 




aq. in.). 


3S7 


Michclia excel 


-a ( Macr- 


Darjeelintr 




4'Jl 


500 




nolia). 














3SS 


Ditto 




Do. 


o*S?3 


;'_7 


4-8J 


iv 


sag 


Ditto 




Do. 


"'.no 


-7-S 






330 


Ouerrus lamel 
Oali). 


on (Hill 


Do. 


fife 


3'54 


<voo 


77s 


391 


Ditto 




Do. 


1 '025 


r«3 


■f'7.' 




392 


Ditto 




Do. 


roln 


3':o 






303 


Pmrklandia 
(Pipli). 


populnea 


Do. 






-i 1 • 


(>llS 


3<X 


Uit:o 




Do. 


"•575 


."5-1 






;/i- 


Ditto 




Do. 






4'if" 




,TI" 


Castanops.is 
(Chestnut). 


1 lystrix 


Do. 


.r.S'iu 


2 'J 7 






307 


Ditto 




Do. 






yju 


J It, 


33S 


Ditto 




Do. 






-r.;.t 


1 <1 ' 



Q. I. C. P. O.- No. 35 R. & 



4-r.-crj.nf>. - 2,000.— H. R. 



fcwvj cuan *<ci 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROGRESS 
WORKING PLANS 



THE PROVINCES OUTSIDE THE 
MADRAS AND BOMBAY' PRES1DENG 
UP TO THE 31st DECEMBER 1908 



WITH SPECIAL R£» 
THE VAI 



1*MC3 A I *t> 



HON OF 
TEWS 



'.■'^fii'i/v Uy 



A. W. F. CA.CC1A, » r.s . 1*1.1 




Imperial ''»»»* 




m 


B 


CALCUTTA 


1 

■ 




1 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROGRESS 
IN WORKING PLANS 

IN THE PROVINCES OUTSIDE THE 

MADRAS AND BOMBAY PRESIDENCIES 

UP TO THE 31st DECEMBER 1908 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE APPLICATION OF 
THE VARIOUS SYLVICULTURAL SYSTEMS 



Complied by 



A. M. F. CACC1A, I.F.S., M.V.O., F.Z.S., 

Imperial Superintendent of Forest Working Plans 
and Imperial Sylviculturlst- 




CALCUTTA 

SUPERINTENDENT GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA 

1919 



Contents. 



Paoe, 

iKTllODDOriOK ........ 1 

Table I. — Statement showing progress made in working plans with 
special reference to the application of tho various 
sylvicultural systems ...... 2 

Tablb II. — Comparative statement of progress made in working plmis 

up to Slst December 1908 11 

Taulb III. — Statement snowing area* brought under tlie control cf 
sanctioned working plans up to Slst December ]908 
in tlio provinoos outside the Madras and Bombay 
Presidencies ....... 43 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROGRESS 
IN WORKING PLANS 

IN THE PROVINCES OUTSIDE 

THE MADRAS AND BOMBAY 

PRESIDENCIES UP TO THE 

3 1 st DECEMBER i9oa 



WITH SPKCIAL JtKFKRh'NOM TO THE APPLICATION OL? 
THE VARIOUS SYLHCULTU UAL SI" STUMS 



UVlllODl CTIOY 

TIIIIE area under the control of (lie Forest Department on (lieJilst 
JL December 1 '. > S in the provinces of British India outside the Madras 
and Bombay Presidencies was reported to be J 31, '502,500 acres, or 
approximately 205,100 square miles: 20,3611,000 acres, or l5'o per cent., 
of this total area having been brought under systematic working in 
accordance with the provisions of regular sanctioned working plane. 

In the tables, which form the substance of this pamphlet, them; 
figures are analyzed. The total forest area corrected up to the .'J Jet 
December l'JOS is shown by Forest Divisions, together with full details 
regarding the areas for which working planw have been completed and 
sanctioned : the area dealt with by each working plan being classified 
according to the sylviculture system adopted. In this place, it will be 
sufficient to briefly summarize the information contained in the tables. 



The following statement gives by Forest Circles the areas brought 
under the control of sanctioned working plans up to the 31st December 
1908 in the provinces outside the Madras and Bombay Presidencies : — 





1 




FOMKT AREA IN ACHKS. 




Area for 

which 

working 

plans have 

been 

prepare 

and 

Sanctioned 

Up to 31 -tt 

December 

1908. 


ea ■ 


ProTinco. 


Cirelo. 


Unserved. 

2,710,587 

1,357,830 
1,160,399 

2,5 1% 229 

1,165,886 


Leased. 




Total. 


Proportion of forest i 
under sanotioued wc 
ing plans. 


Bengal 




... 


1,787,792' 


4,498,379 


Aorae. 
3,250,393 

1,101,853 
1,237,807 


Per 
cent. 

72 


r 

U n i t o d 1 

P r o v ■< 

inoea. 1 

I 


Katttrn 
Cirolo. 

We a torn 
Cirole. 


2,729' 18.02S 1,379,487 
100,399, 16,757 7,416 1,285,00 L 


84 
90 




Total . 

Circle. 

Pegu Cirole 

Sunt horn 
Cirole. 

No r thorn 
Cirolo. 


100,399 1MS6 20,37-1 

J | 

230,199 3 354,3ns 1,102,107 


2,004,188 


2,393,000 

2,".0^370 
- 

1,143,887 

1 070,485 
1,304,438 

24,320 


90 


Punjab 


5,818,901 


44 


Burma. "\ 

r 

Uppeil 

Burma. ■{ 

1 

I 


3.250.232 
1 
4,0.'5,034 

3,975.58:3 
3,372,5 15 




... 17,004,781 20,201,013 

... 10,297,141 20,322,475 
211,517,497 24,523,080 

... 15,012,338 18,884,833 


6 

5 
5 

•13 




Total . 


14,''.29,39i 
i 




... <:S,862 037 


.83.491,451 


3,603,130 


4 







FOREST AREA IN ACBIK. 


Area for 
whii<h 
















Province. Circle. 


Re9orved. 


Leased 


Pro- 
tected- 


Jnolassed.; 


Total. 


workinp 
}lnn9 hftvi 1 

Loon 
prepared 

and 

sanotiunod 

np DO 3lBt. 

December 

190c. 


M 

Hi 

fit 




| 




I 






Acres. 


Per 

fint. 


En.8 1 e r n 
B e n g a 1 

and Assam. 




4,195,341 

4,878,909 | ... 


2,607 


14.511,311 tS,709,«W 


700,780 


4 


1 


l 

Sont h o r n 
1 Circle. 


... 




4.876,909 


3,.'K'-Y-m>3 


73 


C on t ral 
Province* <! 
including 
Berar. 


Nort h a r n 
Circle. 


4,715,088 




1,791 


4,710,874 


2,490,000 


G9 


1 


He r a r 
Circle 


4,495.818 


... 






4,485,818 


1,400,709 


31 




Total . 


14,079,310 
332,920 


... i ... 

1 
1 


1,791 


14.H81,0(tl 


7,479,87» 


53 


Courg 


■■ 


882538 


113,727 


34 


North-WeHt 


151,279 




151,279 


151,279 


100 


Fr o n tier 
Province. 
















Ajmcr . | 


•90,(179 




116 


S.471 


91,205 


r 9,7-0 


95 


Bnlnchiatan 


179,469 




170,409 






Andnmane 
ClrtAND 1 


1 


101,930 

1 




' 1,148,143 


1.200,073 
131,302,EM 






"OTAL 


J 

40.146,410 ' 336,598 

1 


5,164,208 


85.055,200 


ao,8t»,009 


155 



The total avca under the control of sanctioned working plans being 
thus equal to 20/369,009 acres, the following- statement shows the 
allotment of this area to the various sylviculture systems; as well as the 
proportion of the total area wider each method of treatment— 



Sjlrloultura] fyatcm. 



Area In flcros. 



Equivalent 

in flqufire 

milea. 



Percentage ot total 
I area under each 
sjlvicultarsJ 
system. 













Method of Clear FolliDgs bv com- 


' 24,51 7 


38 


/ 

■1 


partments. 










Method of Clear Felling 


s by strips 








Uniform method 


. 


112,702 


17G 


■5 


Group method . 


. . 


48,474 


75 


■9 


Selection method 


, . 


C,6 14,034 


10,334 


32'5 


Sfcorcved forest method 










Simple Coppice . 


, 


81,482 


127 


'4 


Coppice with standards 




1,017,052 


2,6-37 


79 


Method of Improvement Fellings 


5,21 0,501 


N,U1 


257 


Unregulated Fellings or 


Dnworked 

Tit 


(i,GG0,34G 
20,309,009 


10,407 
31,825 


327 


To 


100 



With few slight exceptions, the method of clearances, the uniform, 
and tho group methods have not so far been applied to any extent in any 
of the forests of India. The method of clearances has been attempted in 
the Dai'jeeling forests (liengal) with remarkable success; and the 
uniform method has been found to lie entirely suited to the Cliir {Finns 
hiigifolia) forests of Ihc United Provinces to which it has been largely 
extended. Steps are also being taken to apply this mcthol of 
successive regeneration fellings to some of the Sal forests of the 
Kumaun Division in the United Provinces ; the Sal, being a species 
which would seem to be well adapted to this method of treatment in all 
the highest quality localities and where excessive frosts are not to be 
feared. The method is also to be given a trial in the Mohnvin pure teak 
forost of Upper Burma ; and it is probn.blc that it will be extended in 
the near future to the Terai Sal forests of Bengal. 

The Coppice method, the Selection method and the so-called method 
of Improvement fellings are, however, the ones which have received their 
widest application in India. The former method is eminently adapted to 
all village forests and fuel reserves, where the object of management is 



to produce small poles and brushwood for the use of the surrounding 
peasantry ; the standards moreover supplying the necessary shelter and 
seed, as well as a certain quantity of wood of larger dimensions. 

Under the conditions usually prevailing in Indian high forests, when 
large areas have to be dealt with, where in a mixed forests only one 
species is marketable, where the crop is irregular and only trees of large 
dimensions are saleable, when owing to local conditions it appears to be 
dangerous or inadvisable to interrupt the cover, and when a trained 
establishment is not available, the seleefion method is general ly indicated. 
When in addition the forest is in a ruined condition, the age-clauses are 
badly represented, and the object of management is to remove the 
overmature, dead and dying trees, whilst allowing tlio younger afo 
classes to grow up under favourable conditions, the so-called " Method of 
Improvement, falling* " is prescribed : the latter method being also known 
as the "Selection method by iiirn.i," combined witli sylvicultural operations 
for the benefit of the principal crop. 

The calculation of the possibility under the selection method hag 
leeeived considerable attention in India, and the methods employed have 
been Cully set forth in a Note recently published in the Indian Forett 
Records.* 

The forests dealt with in a regular working plan usually include areas 
which are unworkable, either ou account of their inaccessibility or the 
unproductiveness of the ground ; or, on account oE want of demand. 
Such areas are either closed to all working aw " protect ion forots," or 
the small amount of usually inferior material required from them, to an 
extent far below the possibility of the forests, is removed under the 
general orders and supervision of the Conservator by means of operations 
usually described as " Unregulated fellings." It will bo seen that a 
considerable area in man}' of the more remote forests, where only a few 
trees of the valuable species are exploitable, falls info this class. 

The tables which follow arc corrected up to the 31st December 100*., 
They will require to be revised from time to time as additional areas aro 
brought under systematic working, or whenever owing to the expiry and 
revision of an existing plan, the method of treatment comes to lie altered. 



•The Selection System in Indian Forest.* u nMB[>3M*i in working iilani bfued oa thin 
»y»tcm. Uj A. M . F. Ouecia. Indian Koreet Kwnrdi, Volume I, Part IV. 



Table I. 

SHOWING THE I'HOURESS MADE l\ WORKING PLANS Willi SPECIAL 
KEFEltKNCE TO THE APPLICATION OF THE VARIOUS SYLVICULTURE 

SYSTEMS. 



TABI.KS SHOWING THE PROGRESS 



I 

a 


■3 






> 




■r 


b. 


p. 




«^ 




c 




B 


*% 


K 


«o 



Name nf 

Foroiit 

DiTWiuii. 



FOKEST DIVISION. 

AKEA IN ■■,!■'■ -. 



DETAILS OF 



Class 

of 
Forost. 



LIaz»ra . 



Uudor Without Total I'orest 
Working Working arte of 

Pla.ni. Plann. Division. 



Namr- d{ Workiiijr 

Plana relating 

to each Forfeit 

Division. 



* 



Principal species 
dealt with. 



131,870 



Grand Tot at, 



tvVVFlllpi 



( : Bra 

idi . \\ Pro' 
(. Unc 



Total 



Konervad . 

teotod . 

nolaaaod 



151,270 



160,100 
48,665 



-. 4 



E'anjrra 



Total 



Ruaorvod . ' 35,232 
Protootad. 473,378, 
Daolaasud j 278.B37 



Kola 



! Reserved . 
1 Protected. 



786,807 



42,961 

i,27i,sai 



Total 



Baahahi 



ToUl 



Keserrod 



51,195 

30,137 



208,760 280,332 



•jm 



1,S17,S61 2,306 



140,020 30,270 
+17 



145,920 00,096 



\ u " 



NORTH-WEST 



151,270 . 



151,279 



211,205-, 

48.665 

229,137 ■> 



Kagan rango forests Deodar ; Pinas longi- 
folia ; P. exceUa; 
Abies Wehbiaaa ; 
etc. 
Si'rttn cause furoats Finns iongifoiia, 

P. exculea; Abies 
Wobbiaoa; etc, 
Dungagali and Oak; P. longifoliaj 

Tmidiani range P. oxcelsa ; Deodar; 
forusts. etc. 

Khaiipnr vango Pinus longifolia 
forests. Dodonoaa Viseusa, 

Priusepia utiliH 
Acacia modosta 
A. uatechu : Ola* 
euspidata; Pistacia. 
I intergerrioau. 



489,007 



Kalachitta Forosts Olive, Acaei 

Murroo-K a h u t a 

Foro.-'ts. 



35,282) 

473,378 5- Kangra Forest 

278,2:J7J Divisiuu. 



780.807 



42,981 1 
1,277,186 j 



1,320,167 



Kula Forost Doodar; P. longi- 

Division. folia ; P. excel*a j 

Pimt Morinda ; 

Abies Webbiana; 

otc 



236,199 1 ' Baaiiahr 
417 j" Satlej 
Foretts. 



236.616 



Leased Doodar ; 
Vallev excelsa; eto, 



Pinus 



PDN 



14 



MADE IN WORKTNd PLANS IN WniA. 



WOKKING PLAN'S. 



AUEA IN ACEtS UNDER DIFrgRENT SltiVlCVLTUKAL STaTIUB. 



» c. h 
&D p CD 

■U O Ol 

\2h aw 
m 



! 



o.ld 



10 2 a 
o a E 






Group 
Method. 



Suleotkm 
Methud. 



FRONTIER PEOVINCE. 



JAB. 



4LIS1 

29,804 

38,060 

5,885 



1144.12 



Sunpla 



11^.- ■ ,. Method ' AtPfc 
provu- Un»gu- 






-sa 






47,595 



47,595 



145,140 






Coppi,. B Stai.d- p „ r " T T !,;,/"?." I 

ii..t. j „.j. ' meut luted ivl- 

Psi- '"'ta 0¥ 

liujf». Unwurksd. 



Method. ' ardrt 
Method. 



Grand 
Total- 



Period of 

p«oh 
World de 

Plan. 



Ebmaikb. 



145,140 

. .L 

1,159,280 

1,159.280 
95,491 



7,7*0 



1,714 



27,404 



1900-01 to 
1939-40. 



29,801 lWl.VO'i to 
] 036-U7, 

39.7SS 1905-00 to 

i:o-a), 

32,7*0 1S0WB to 
1920-21, 



29,118 



45,017 



45,017 



408,495 



7,749 



151, 270* 






47,304 93,011 1890-97 to 
1025 SC 
■,700 G0,4r,0 115,751 1890-1000 

to 1028-29. ' 



7,709 



107,844 208,705 



213,487 19,775" 7S0.897 



408,485 2J3.4S7 



95,49i I ... 



158,581 



158,581 



• Bumuoo 
Cirolo, 



:hi;,w: 



i,:il7.wn 



1,317,801 



1897 98 to 
1931-83. 



10,241 1 40,188 1-45,920 



10^4! 



40,188 145,920 



1605-06 to 

is.; :,.;. 



fl A 



TABLES SHOWING TrLE PBOGRESS 



FOBEST DIVISION. 



DETAILS 


OF 




bo 


c£ 






0) 




b 


■c 




, 3 


OQ 




f 




Frinoipa! species 




S3 


dealt with. 


Q 


"S 1 




11 


03 
>= 1 




a 




■£w 


o 



11° 



Abba in acbeb. 



Nome of 

Forest 

Division. 



Simla 



Total 



Lahore 



Total 



S 

ft. 



M ul tun 



Total 



Jhelam 



Class 

of 
Forost. 



( KoHervod . 
\ UnelaHMO'l 



Under 

Working 

Plans, 



Reserved 

,-{ Protected 
i Unclaimed 



■I 



Reserved 
Protected 
Unbiassed . 



20,338 
■> IfflS 



22,533 



14,080 



11,080 



Without, 

Working 1 

Plans. 



7,911 
75,910 



Total Forest 

area of 

Division. 



Name of Working 

Plane relating 

to each ForeBt 

Divieion. 



03381 
i,195 T 



Kalesar Eoserved 

Forests. 
Simla Municipal 

Forests. 

Simla Catchmont 
Area Forests. 

Kiitkhni, Kotguru 
Reserved Fo-estrf. 



22,533 



PUN 



Sal j otc. . 

Deodar ; Oak ; Pinus 

lontfifolia; Khodo- 

dendron ; etc. 
Deodar j Uak ; Pinun 

excolsa ; Piooa 

Morinda. 



90,337 



20,596 i Changa Mitnfja 

j Plantation. 
7.011 -i 
75,1)10 I Sliahdcra-Cum-Jhu- 
gion Plantation. 



104,117 



72 820 18.213 85,533 ) 

1.537,928 1.537,928 \ 

17,903 17,90:-l) 



f Relorved 
'I Unc 



n classed . 



Total 






Chenab 


■{ 




Total 




.. 



72.320 1 .569,04* 



191,070 
02,008 



Montgomery. -j 
Total 



Eeserved 

Uncloesod . 



253.07S 



67,883 
4,105 



71,1 



1,041,364 



191,070 
62,008 



253,078 



04,863 
391,669 



456,532 



67,883 
4,105 



71,9 



64,863 
991,669 



456,532 



South Kabirwala 
ii nil Mailpi 

Fores ta. 



Dlillt^Tgift Sisfioo ; 1 
Moms iudica. 



MAi)E IN WOKKING PLANS IN INDIA. 



WORKING PLANS. 



Area in acrss dndee biffshest Stlvicdltv&al Systems. 



Ill 

h •£■ 
o »- . 

w-OO g 

E If f 

8 2 co c 

H J O O 1 ! 



Si i 

00 I 



'* 



*2 p 

J§a 

E^ ID' 



-o«I g 



Gronp 



Select ion 



Mothud. Method. 



JAB — conld. 



& 
Pa 






Method Area 
e . . , LJ "P^^ „f !„,- ; under 
B w.th r 

St " ir " 3 " mont Itatad fVI- 



Coppiao 

Method 



■di 



Pol- lin^s or 



MeH,od - Hug-. [tWorlrod 



1,814 



... 



l.BH 



78,820 



! 320 



Grand 
Tstjil. 



Pariud of 

i . ;i 

Plan. 



RlMiMKH. 



0,75!' 1,101 

187 2.0M ' 

283 1,710 



390 1 B.83 

IMS3 
1.838 



1«4 



gffjS !»&■« be 
1BS8-S& 

2u;i 1897-S8 to 
1326-27, 

L9gi 1B9S-07 to 
' 101!l-20. 

S (117 1001-02 be 
1020-21. 

aa.ssa 



SCO 1 1.39-3 188S-97 ton 

mu-n, 

niiti u.twi inm-oi t>. 
im-w. 



12,160 





14.0WI 


1,880 


:;; 


72,32'l 


72.H20 








::: 



IK97-M to 
1I/-0-21. 



* 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROGRESS 



FOREST DIVISION. 



DETAILS OF 



, 



Name of 

Forest 

Division. 



01a»» 

of 

Forosta. 



13* 



1 A 

P* Cu 



o. , ( Eosorved . 

Snahpnr ■ V trnolonsad . 



Total 



C Beaorvod , 
Pir Mahal . i Pruteoted. 

nnUsned . 



I Be 
1 Pr 



Total 



i 



Grand Total 



Nairn Tal 



Tot il 



Garhwal 



Total 



Bflaorved . 
Protocted . 



Abea in acbi.3. 



Under 



Without 



I 



Working Wortiriff 
Plan*. Plana. 



2,568,376 



Total Forest 

area of 

Division. 



Name of Working 

Plana relating 

to each Forest 

Division. 



Principal species 
dealt with. 



401,360 
21,060 ! 



401,369 
21,060 



1° 



422,429 



14,050 

0,210 

10,883 



43,782 
1,280,021 



422,429 



14.659 

9/240 

19,883 



43,782 
. r >,S4S,900 



70.85.5 
M.7W 



'16.612 



Canst** 



Total 



I 
Bonorvoil . 30S,3H 



308,341 



Eeeorvid . 275,404 H.824 






bo 

13 

13 

s 

s 



PUN 



UNITED 



27,677 



27,67 



5.217 



1,8*7 



275.4M 



6,824 



1 


NTa-ini Tal Sub-Divi- 


Finns Jonpfifolia ; 


12 


.. 




sional Forosta. 


Oak ; Sal ; etc. 








NaiuiTal Municipal 


Oak; rinuK lonjfifolia; 


... 






I'^ivrowtw. 


Pieris uvalifolia ; 
Rhododendron arbo- 
reuui ; Obc. 








Nuini Tal Canton- 








107,532 


ment Porosis. 








16,757- 


Ktmikliot Sub-Divi- 
htotuvI Forests. 

Ranikhnt Canton- 
ment Fnroflfcs. 


Pirme longifulia ; 

Oak ; Florin tiva- 

lifolia ; Khododen- 

dron ; oto. 
Piling longifolia ; 

Oak ; etc. 


17 






Muktimar Boserved 


Oak ; Piiiun longi- 


1 




1 


Forosta. 


fulia ; etc. 






124,289 




... 






r 


Uaikwal Forest 


Sal ; T. tomentoaa : 


6 


1 
2 


j Division. 


Anogei**nia latifolia ; 






3i:'l„'i8S.[ 

Holiar (inribnl 


oto. 






Sal ; Teruiinalia to* 


2 




I 


Chand Forests, 


niontosa; etc. 


... 


... 


313.588 






r 


Gantrei Forests 


Sal; Terminal ia to- 


7 




| 1 Division. 


nii-nr-- f ; I>alborg;La 






2H'2.318<1 

1 1 LftiudoiTup Eo- 


Sisfloj ; eto. 






Sal ; Pinna longifriia ; 


2 




U served Forefita. 


etc. 






282,318 


, ■ 


,.. 


... 





MADE IN WORKING PLANS IN INDIA. 



WORKING PLANS. 



ABKA iN ACKVS VNDtU DIKi'tEENT SY L V iCC LTORA I. StBTKMB. 



■»«8 S g 8:3 

O g"S B-c "? 2 g 

"S > a" ° fe 1 'S^Si I tironp Selection 

°££| * F ° £„. Method. Method. 

„.£>*«! « ? 6 5 g 

i^5 W ■ 



JAB— conrld. 



~r ... ... 

... 



S3? 



PROVINCES. 



47,895 1.39S.W] 



47,712 



17,392 



17,302 



L&3S 



75,514 



I .» <o.' J1 * 



40,914 



28,402 






3,48* 



' ' 



Simple with 
C»i>piee Stmid- 
Metiiod. »rd» 



. , Method Area 
Ui W)\™ ofim- nnd,.r 

pr.»v,- Unroji'i- Unwid 
moat luted Fa!- Total. 
Fol- linga or 
Motl,wl - lingi. Onwork«d. 



Pcri.d of 

Working 1 

Finn. 



[,! Vtl.tS. 



... 



7UU 4»-.fi.«iii iiiK.om 171.131 a,r.ofl.riTii 



;s,70i; 



8,?W 



7JH« 



7,348 



143,883 
40,522 

181,501 



195,281 

7,97(1 

203,258 



78.228 



78,223 



32.B31 



51,448 

2,035 

WlVJl 

207,819 

40,522 

308,5*1 
2(14,024 

11,471) 



92.M1 275,494 



1399-97 to 
19 J 5-1 (1 



iftW-!l9 to 
1017-1S. 



1900-01 to 
1 919-80. 



1803-91 to 
1011) .. 

lsM-95 to 
191 3-1 1. 



1^93-94 to 
1914-15, 

1 904-05 to 
1933-34. 



TABLES SHOWINU TltK PROGRESS 



1 






FOBE8T DIVISION. 



Asia in aobes. 



DETAILS OF 



Nnrnn of 

Forj«t 

Divi ion. 



Class 
of 

Forest. 



I 



tlntlor Without 

Working ' Working 

Plana. Plans. 



Total Forest 

arna of 

Division. 



Name of Working 

Plans rolating 

to ouch Forest 

Division. 



Is 

* 9\ 



Principal species 
dealt with. 



Sewolik 



Total 



fB.HOr'/od I SC5,926 



LUnelassed 



7,446 






305,026 



Jaansar 



Total 



j Kuaei'Ted . 91,033 
\ Leased . 100,399 



191,131 



a 

1 

1 
S 



Grand Total . 



I 



•" 



Knmann 



Total 



Pilibhit 



Tot»l 



Kh.>ri 



Totil 



BoBorvod . 333,672 



888,872 



2.781 



Bosorrod ' 1.13,302 



133 :»* 



Boservod . 



266.420 



I 



266,420 



21,559 



21,559 



UNITED 



365,926 DehraDun ForeBts 



7,446 



Bsrkala, Dhol- 

khand and Bani- 
pur Banges. 



373,372 



Sftl ; Dalbergia Siasoo ;| 

Acacia Catechu ; 

etc. 
Sal ; Tcnniualia to- 

mento9a ; Cedreli 

Toona ; etc. 



| Jannsar-B a w a r Deodar ; Finns Ion 

"I? ~.A-. ,1,. T> .. .. n „ 1 . 



91,035 
00,399 



Forests 



folia; P. excelsal 
Oaks ; Piooa Morin- 
da; Sal, etc. 
Pinna longifolia ; eto. 



Xehri-frar li w a 1 
i lt'iLHfld C lii r 

Forrsts. 
I Tohri-G» r li w » 1 Deodar, etc. 
I leasod Deodar 
L ForostB. 



12 

1 
3 



191,43* 



1,237,807 47,194 1,285,001 



2,731 336,403 | Kumaun Forest Sal, eto. 

Division. 

— I . 



336,403 



10 



133,302 



133,302 



287,988 



287,088 



rPilibhit Opon Sal, etc. 
Forests. 
Pilibhit Closed Sal, eto. 

Forests. 
Sir« i-Banbaaa Sal, eto. 
,. Forests. 



f Bhira E a n g >■ Sal, eto. 
I (Hirapur Work-i 
I ing Circle), 

i Bhirn Bangs Sal, Torminolia torn- 
Forests. entosa ; eto. 

T r a n s-S a r d a Sal, eto. . 
L Forests. 



M A DM Itf WOlikfNG PLANS \D ltfDlA. 



WORKING PLAN'S. 



AKKA IN ACRKS UNDER DIFFERKNT Sl'LTlCBLTUEAL StNTtSIS. 



6*3 

• So 



S« °9.2 

— ' D. 9 *=> 






■s"o So Group 'Selection 
_ 5 « Methud. Method, 

?5 a i 









PROVINCES -conld. 



m 



33.267 



■*» 


1 


$ 








a 




Cm 


Simple 




Coppici 1 




.Mothod 






*-,-*= 








l. S> 




ga 




Uj 





n»«_j. Method 
with 



Aroa 

nod or 
el"'^i prom- I UiiTBgu- i Grand 
t,t » na ' men t Iskid iV'l- Total. 



Fericu! of 

Pi» n .' 



arde 
Motliod. 



... 



041 

33,626 

:;s,ooo 
a,3ii? 

69,933 

87,966 



879 , 39,207 



31,524 



87.329 

870 274,989 

20;: .342 



ling». 



17,227 119,485 
25,522 10,112 



42,749 129.597 



linpx or 

Unworkpd 



177,499 

152,793 188,427 
I 

152.793 305.920 



1P03-M to 
1S20-27. 

1998-09 to 
3937-36. 



9,249 



J 11,1 00 
1 l,8',',2 



9&S71 liWMH to 

.19:19-40, 



43,100 18!>5-9fi to 

ioarp-26. 



49,703 



9240 



■MW 1 55,ffl>0 522.060 
60,144 



21,!)32 191 tftl 19fo-06tr» 
. 1W4-J5._ 

2KH.879 1,237,8U7 
■ 



202342 



1,619 



1,610 



71,180 333,072 1302,-03 to 
10:w-;)7. 



fiO.144 71,180 , 333.872 



50,120 



I 



50,120 



14,971 , 3S,C*8 J4.104 45,123 



1141)0 24749 37,759 



05 391 27,148 38353 , 133,308 



170332 



I70,d:i2 



23,395 .' 11,478 12,074 47,0-17 



1902-03 ti> 
1083-34. 

1007-08 to 
193;- 34. 

190J -02 to 
1010-11. 



1896-97 to 
1917-18. 



29.64* 15.721 2,681 ' 48,050 I 1894-95 to 

1917- US, 



170,832 



03,043 , 27,199 15,355 2e«,420 



1903-04 to 
M8M8, 



<1Q 



TABLKS SHOWING TEE PROGRESS 




I 

1 


F0BE8T DIVISION. 




ABBA » Acm*. 




1 



DETAILS OF 



Name of CIisb 

Forest of 

Division. Forest, 



Under 

Working 

Plana. 



Bahraioh 



Total 



tiouds. 



Total . 



Gorihkpnr . . 



Total 






Bnndolkhai 



Total 



,a{ 



UlUNJ) TOTA.L 

GRAND TOTAL 

Darjosling ■ 
Total 



Besorvod 



213,644, 



218,941. 



Without ' Total Poreet 
Working area ol' 

Plane. Division. 



Name of Working 

Plans relating 

to each Forest 

Division. 



Principal species 
dealt with. 





.H 










1 o 


u. 




**-! 


m 




r ° 




Ifs 


a 


! fe 


K 



r Motipur E a n g e ' Sal, etc. 
Forests, 
213 941 J Chaki n-Ch a r d a Sal, etc. 
' ' I Foroets. 

Bhinga Range Sal, otc. 
Forests 



UNITED 



Besorvod . 103,785 



213,944 



minor I Tikt-i Forests 
1W,7H ^ TalBipnr Fore9t , 



Sal, ole, 
Sal, etc. 



Reserved . 
Proteotod. 
Unclaimed . 



103,785 




103,785 


110,721 


110.721 


110,721 




110,721 




171,087 
2,729 

18,928 


171,087 
2,729 
18,928 




193,344 
217,634 


193,344 


USUUB 


1,379,487 


2,399,060 


264,828 


2.66M88 



Reserved 



24,736 



oo,; 



75,019 Dnrjeeling Forest* 



i'i it* 



ToW. 



Reservod 



24.730 30.2 



141,011 



75,019 | 



BEN 



Oak. Chestnut, 4 7 
Michelia Champ>icu, 
etc. 



141,611 Tista Division Sal; Codrela Toana : 6 10 



Forests. 



141,611 



111,611 



Walnut : Baoklondia 
populnos ; Oak : oto. 



ADE IN WORKING PLANS IN INDIA. 



11 



WORKING PLANS. 



*£-s 


a 


.2 8 3 








, O < 4 


en 


"3 is j -9 


*c *» 


*s: 


r^ 


■ £*£ 






*v a » a 


o .5 


-° — S w 


^^ 






5h Sot 


35* 



Area in acebs dndkr different STLvicoiTrRix Ststbhb. 



Coppice 
Simple with 
OoppiuQ Stand- 
Mi'thod arda 

Method 



PROVINCES— conrfd 



GAL. 




Method 


Aran 


of Im- 


nadir 


prove- 


Unrag-a- 
ItitodFrf- 


ment 


Fel- 


HiiffB or 


lings. 


Unwurkovl. 


| 





< irand 
Total. 



IVriod of 

paoh 
Wnrkirig 

Plan. 



Rr.MAUKf 



4,245 


42,1 64 
11,861 
23.10S 


78,220 
7,052 
46,693 

]32.r>05 

46.043 


1S0,B3S 

23,760 
69 Sill 


1S93-91 to 
1907-08. 

1803-06 to 
1014-15. 

1893-94 to 
1907-08. 


4.245 


77, m 


11&9M 




18,456 


13,410 
90,329 


1900-01 to 
1919-80. 



I 
... 

. i _i_ 



44,286 



13,411! 



46,0(3 103,781 



21,991 40.47(1 44,216 110.721 1893-94 to 

1912-13. 



21,901 4(1.470 . 44216 110,721 






419,070 



162,130 232,391 348,218 . I,' 61, H13 



87,966 879 694,050 



24,736 



24,736 



7,348 217,825 , 754,455 637,137 2,399,660 



1 29,316 



129,158 



12,255 



12,215 



34,736 1902-03 to 
1911-12, 



24,736 



141,611 1906-07 to 
I 1920-S1. 



141,611 



! 12 



TABLES SHOWING THE 1'UOGHSS 



i& 



a s p 
ill 



FOBEST DIVISION. 



Name of 

Poro*t 

Division. 



Kurseong 



Total 



Am .i IN ACRES. 



CloB? 
Of 

Foreet. 



Reserved 



r i 

a 1 

a a 

,5 • 



„ . J Rosorved 

Palawau ■ \ j p ro t e ctea 



Total . 



Singhuham . j 

Total 
Samrjalpur ■ 

Total 



Reserved 
Protected 



Unserved . 



Under 

Working 

Plans. 



68,082 



68,082 



DETAILS OF 



Without ' Total Forest 
Working area of 
Plana. , Division. 




I 
Reserved . 



Pari 



( . Kosorvod 
'\ I Protected, 



Total 



Snndarbnns .-J 



Total 



Beflervod 
Protected 



463,847 

403,847 
44,600 

44,606 



68,082 



0H,(W2 



156,769 150,769 1 

20,780 20,780 J 



Name of Working 

Plans relating 

1o ea=h Forest 

Division. 



Priooipal species 
dealt with. 



Kursoong Besorved Sal, otc. 
Forests. 



177,549 177,549 



1,098 
112,850 



72,489 



72,489 



1,331,712 
1,109,310 



2,441,022 



Sunthal P«- 
fanas. 

Total 



- I I 



Protooted 



118,954 


577,801 


208,553 
208,553 


253,159 
253,159 


140,801 


146,801 



404,945 1 c . . , , K 

noflr.fi J-PinRbbhum Ko- 
U -'P jb > served Forests. 

I 



Bnrannhar Range 
Forosta. 



Angul Forests 



146,801 146801 



231,218 



231,218 



72.489 
231.218 



303,707 



1,331.712 
1,109,310 



2,441,022 
186,8-27 186.S27 



186,827 186,827 



BEN 



Sul, etc, 



•Puri Reserved Sal, etc. 
Forests. 



Snl, etc. 



■Sundarbans Divi- 
sion Forosta. 



Heritiora minor, etc. 



16 



HADE IN WORKING PLANS IN INDIA. 



13 



WORKING PLANS. 







Abfa in ac*kb 








0» <S £ 


S« 


® .2 

rsl'l I 


s bS 










t3 n m rf 
o •- -i- to 
■dES a to 

4> o o 4 


EC 


£ *3 t* Gron p 
rS n Method 

I = ^ be 
J- j .5 


|fa art 


■S«3 




GAL— col 


ild. 





Akta in ackkh un'd>,b different Stltichi,ti;»ii. Ststkms. 



Selection 
Method. 



-2a 



68,082 



«£,082 



<-.„„_! . Method 
Corpus. ,» T 

Simple with „' rz 

hnbi 8tod. P^T 

Method, ard. W 1 



Area 

under ■ 
Unregu- 
lated fc'el- 
lin ■-• - or 
TJnworked 



Grand 
Total. 



442.G48 



uA>m 



37,439 



37,439 



Poriod of 
aMh Wort- lllj m iKh-. 
iiig Plan. 



68,088 



68.08.' 



iHM-w to 
IMB-19. 



21,188 j ... 



21.19s 



■1(13. KIT 



4(13.8-17 



C,5J!) ' 88.467 ... 44,60G 



6.510 



88,057 



44, wh; 



1003-04 to 
B15-I8. 



lH)5-9fl to 
1U24-2.1. 



35,050 



85,950 



r50,O8O 



750,0-iM 



7£4<i0 



2,4Si 



1.690,942 



i,cyo,;>t2 



2,441,02a 



2,441,02* 



lflDMfl to 
1919-20. 



HXXHI7 to 
JW9-10. 



u 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROG,; 



ESS 




MADE IN WORKING PLANS IN IXPTA. 



WORKING PLANS. 



AEEA IN AOfiER VtiDBK DIF*'EKENT 8 V L VHTliTl'B* L STSfffKN, 



S B-£ 

O W ■ 

u< g 

m b- t- 
fl g UJ O 



1« « * * 



— conrid. 



.s ft 



■£(£ 






mttt 



Group 
Method. 



i 
i 

Selection 
Method. 



•2^ 13' 




■,.. 






... 



IS 



. «. 



24,730 



fiT7,S26 



A>1D ASSAM. 



... 



I 



208,805 
208,805 






Simple 
Copplot 
Method. 



Coppice 
with 

Stand - 
arts 

Method. 



Method 
of Im- 
prove- 
ment 
Fel- 

Hu)fB. 



rsrt'Hs. 




Area 
undor 




(Jurejra- 
lati-il Pol- 


Grand 
Total. 


lings or 
Dnworkod. 

1 i 





75,052 788,187 1,090,012 S,a&0£&3 



04,380 49,206 



H880 



40,200 



113,58o 

118,589 

aoH.^ci 

208,W5 



Period of ' 

Mi'h Kkmarhb 
Work-in? 

Ylai:. 



lfMH-IW to 
1923-24. 



100.VOC. to 
IBiy-ai. 



16 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROGIIKSS 



1 

I 

I 

M O 

£ 

Hi 



FOREST DIVISION. 



Name of 

Forost 

Division. 



CIub 

of 
Forest. 



Goalpara 



ToUl 



Abia in acbes. 



DETAILS OF 



Name of Working 
1 , Plans relating 

Under Without lotal Forest ( ^^ p or eat 
Working , Working area of Division. 

Plana. Plans. Division. 











M 












* 


a 


Principal srjeoiea 




■3 


dealt with. 


o 


r* 




cc 


o 










JS'K 






SB 


id 




m 


fc 



f llofiorred . 314,402 109,190 
{ Uncloesed i 217,373 



334,402 . 886,868 



503,592 >_, , , c i 

217 373 fuoalpara Sal oal 
' ' ' ForeBta. 



Kammp 



Total 



Reserved , 
UnoliMsod . 



1 



107,238 
1,367,079 



720,965 



107,23s 
1,367,079 



1,534,3] 7 1,531,317 



Darrang ., 



Total 



3 

a 

•s 
pa 



I 



Nowgong i| 



Reserved . 
Undated 



rioservad . I 
Unclaimed . 



1,988 212.780 
1,205,070 



214,771 ( 



Pal Forests i'f the Sal 



1,305.1170 f'-aiJi "feats i'lthe 
Parran? Divi 



1 

a 

m 



Total 



H S Sibgftgar -J 

I 



Reserved . 

Unclasped , 



Total 



Lakhimpar < fj 



Reserved . 
nolimew) . 



. 1.9SS 1,517,850 1,5.19,SH 



120.K73 120,873) 

2,150,883 2,150.883) 



2,283,756 1888,738 



41,133 filfi.,';n 
1,591900 



057,077 I k, , t, , 

1,894,960 ( ' Sn - mbl ' 1, KeeerveJ 



11,188 2,511,510 2,552,G43 



Forests. 



221,393 221,392) 

1.911,586 ■ 1,911,58«S 



Total 



2,1.32,978 2,132,978 



f Reiorved 
ti-xo Hills ] : 

(. UnOiWHliil 

Total 
Gbsnb Torn 



Roiorved , 0,812 83,081 89,896 Drirebu Reserve 



l,8tH,924 



6,812 i 1,968,008 



io6:m mmjm 



1,384,944 ; Darugin Ruserve . 
1,974.820 



18,709,659 



EASTERN BENGAL 



1 ... 



MADE IN WORKING PLAKS IK INDIA. 



17 



WOBK1NG PLANS. 







A 









'S 9 o 

5 g-JJ 

OS. • 

o< 5 


S; 


rn * a 


CO 


«s#1 

c 5 »h 


"8 E&s*3 
r £ 

"3 u »- a 




■ui . 


112 

r-i tC 

~ a 
c .« 








J&S 3 to 

J2fti PCS 


-^ zl 
"£"« 

£* 


■^ ^ ft a 
= 3-3* 



AREA IN ACBE3 UNDER DIETEBENT SlLV tcl' LTOBAL SfHTtlie. 



Mcllll'il 



ATL''fl 
U.UllpT 

UnrOKH- 
latud Fai* 

liu^:-. or 
Cuworkiut, 



firoml 

Total. 



P.rkd of 

on oh 
Wurkiug 



AND ASSAM- condd 





_ 





run. 


334,402 


... 


334,462 










KlMAVVR, 



l'laa 
uudcr 



1 




6i>0 






01,154 


... 



iMi 1-4-1 S87 hi 

si-s-woa. 

2,448 ! I- !]:■■.'<> tu 
31-3-100 r.. 



7M766 



is 



TABLES SHOWING THK PBOGK£s<? 



FOBBST DIVISION, 



IS 



£ 8 
a afc 



Namu of 

Forint 

Division, 



Asia ik m:s,bs. 



Of 



Uiidat Without 



Manilla 



Total 



Juljbulporo 



Total 



c " 

ill 

i| 1 



Damoli 
Total 

Total 

Total 



A clii".-, 
B clans 



A olcMn 



A class 



Working 
Plaox, 



(52,512 

62,51-2 
332,i!>o 

332,400 

506,832 
500,8:32 



Working 
Plaiif 



Name of Working 

_, , „ Plant) relating 

Total toreat t0 each Forest 

aioaof Division. 

Divimon. 





DETAILS OJF 


i 


Principal species 
dealt with. 


lr 1 

1 1 

Co 

■g p* 

o 

sgia 






1,035,402 1,097,914 Bonjar Vallfy 

For eats, 
546,075 546,075 Mutinala Hanfco 

Furents, 



1,581,477 ' J,6t3,9S0 



332.490 JuUul|>oro Furoifc 
Divisiou. 



332,490 



500,832 Damoh polMt 

Divibiou. 



506,832 



Hos!ianKiVba<3 



Total 



SgOfflJ 



Total 



A olain 
B olaiH 



A class 



A class 



A ('lima 

R clan* 

TJuol.' ---(I 



14.1)80 4li2,9-o,l 
0,311:; 



14.080 ' 460,251 
159,392 



477,020 Smigiir 
6 302 i Division 



Fores; 



483,331 



189,392 



159,392 Nflrainplipnr Forest 
Division. 



150,392 



473,000 127,506 



473,000 127,506 



521,200 



6,811 
1,791 



601 



( iioj-hangutiad Forw 
,106^ Division. 

(. Bori Kauge Forest i 



601,196 



" 



521,200- 
6,811 
1,701 



■Korai R a u g u 
ForufSts. 

Ganginala Bauge 
, ForuMts. 

T'vli liiian- Foi. ■.;-.. 

Cham>tr:i. Dhwirmi 
land J! erbiitlda, 
iJaDgun . 



8«1J»0; 8,602 529,802 



CENTBAL 

' 1 ! ... 

2 ... 



44 



I— 



27 



2rt 



7 
6 ... 



17 



MADK IN WORKING PIASS IX INDIA. 



19 



WORKING PLANS. 



Abba in acres cndeb different Sylvjcoltiibal Ssbtkms. 



Ill 


Clear 
rips. 


oa" 


ot. ■ 


o^ 1 1 


_, 6ll p O 


^5 = 


O ._ ■** © 


r^^! 




!* 


<1 



^ si 

.£■_ § 
*" g" 

— 03 o 



. <_<rou|i 
Meiliod, 



SoloetioB 
Jloftoi). 



1 1 



Coppico 
simple with 
Cwppi** Stftud- 
Methud. arcil 

MctW 



Method 
of Im- 

pruve- 
uiont 
Fel- 
ling,,. 



Area 
under 
llui-c^u- 
Intfd *sl- 
lii.grt u r 
Uiiwui'kfid. 



Qrud 

Tot al . 



Poirlod at 

cm oh 
AY ot king' 

I" lau. 



R.IU4KIW . 



PROVINCES. 



15,971 



15,371 



... 



40,541 ffl,r.!2 19«4 to 

loan, 

1907-08 to 
19j7-3S. 



40,541 02,512 



880,£02 72,290 332,492 18119-1000 tm 

1928-29. 



260,202 72,290 35:i,4!l2 



506,718 



n;i ;.u;,k:j2 iHuo-iaootu 

1928-211. 



500,719 



118 SM,882 



14,080 14,0*0 11KW-W to 

lo.-a-as. 



14,080 14.0*1 



113.884 



185,508 150,392 1807 i. 
15)17, 



23,684 ... 135,508 159,89: 

... ' 2-i" :<18 ■ 



21,523 



21,523 






83,458 478,800 1897-98 to 

I U2i:-2T. 

IS07-W; t» 

1W1B-07. 



2*1,948 232,052 473,000 



160,740 20,016 121,856 1S95-8S tu 
11K4-25. 
6,116 Sl.OW I 12,830 81,481 1895-91! tu 

1924-25. 
33,105 52,288 85,"93 laUf-l'fl to 

... 1*4,05) 88,91c 232,970 JHOu-OJ tc 

1929-30. 



6,116 808,905 



]«4,i:56 521,2*0 



! 



8 



20 



TABUS SHOWING THE PROGRESS 



5 1 

I s 
II 



FOREST DIVISION. 



Name of 

F»rent 

Division. 



Clasn 
of 

Forest. 



£ 5 



I J 

1 I 

a. B - 

> S 

c n 

E ,« 



£ Chhindwara 



( A olas-n 



Total 



GRiSB '1'QTAT. . 



Ralaghat 



Totil 



A class 



a 

3 (A class 

| fltandftra . ■} H o1m , 



Total 



Bilnsimr . A cIcirb 



Total , 



Abu in acres. 



Under Without 

Working Working 

Plann." Plans. 



420,798 



33,01,2 



Total Forw 

area of 

Division. 



DETAILS OF 



Name of Working 

Plana relating 

to each Forest 

Division. 



Siliwnni Ghat 

Range Fore.-ts. 
Sauk Kan ge Forest* 



42C,7!)8 J I Umroth Range 

33,012; Forests. 

Amarwara Range 

Fcrftstt. 
Ambara Range 

Formats, 



Principal spooies 
dealt with. 



I 



420,798 33,042 



2,40<;,aOG 2,21P,»B8 



459,840 



4,716,874 



H.240 72,7:18 



554,240 72,733 



020,978 .J 



f , Dhansim E a. n g o 
I Forust*. 
[ ' Sonawani Rango 
Forests, 
j PmulratLla E«IK« 
Forests. 
Baiharand Raigarh 

Range Furosts. 
PftriiHwacn Bangs 
Jforart*. 



3o5,56.S 



\<m 



m$r< 



88&J8S- 
S.W7! 



f Paoni Range Forests 

Oawan Thari Kaugo 

Furcats. 
Lakhni R a u g e 

Forests, 

IGaikhnri Range 
FurOStS, 
Portabgurh Range 
I' crests. 



aasjses 5,497 



1 



260/180 



360,480 



164,003 



IBijm 



341,065 



12r,,4S5 i 



425,485 



Chita Pandaria 
Range Forest-). 

Lormi Range 

Forests. 






CENTRAL 



3 ... 

4 ... 
4 4 



ma.dk in working rLixs in india. 



.1 



WOBKING PLANS. 



AEEA 1(J ACRKK DNDKK DIKFUBENT ?T [.VIC UI.'fCKAL SvaTEBa. 



s a '-s 

r~, Ex * 



S m fl 

° 3.2 
o 2g 

* 5 

° OJ , 

,03 *> 
1 tx 



E ° 



Group 
Method. 



Selection 
Method. 



2.2 



Eft 



£ 2 
£.2 



Simple 
Cuppiae 
Method. 



PBOYINOES-cotil.i 



21,523 



] .1,1171 






Coppice 

with 
Simil- 
ar ilfl 
Sic i bud. 



Method 
of lm- 

mont 
F»J- 
libigs. 



Ary.s 
anilar 

utsd r«i> 

ling.* or 



Grand 
Total. 



Poriud of 

Working 
I'lnii. "" 



Hem.mk*. 



»5,7JS 


87.818 


78,981 


1895418 to 

19.1.2:.. 


48,992 


lfi.jl!) 


65,511 


I89647 t'i 


s,u;j8 1 


!<3,srn; 


108^94 


1886.07 to 


16.7*1 


49,053 


S6,79i 


1s:>g-:i- to 
lWfi-SB 


82332 


85,088 


U8.M8 


M'l-U» to 

103V-S1. 



1 IO..".31 3St.,4P7 42(i.7*.w 



536,710 950* 



673,807 2,498,008 

| 



57,384 
:!-\:t:« 
11,048 
58,288 
16,1.67 



132.288 

1,1 17. 

111,1171 
BB.S31 



1 



1KQ.988 873,302 



'J 1,09 1 

20,S!>.- 

■8,493 



a:-, Jin 



1,496 
68,387 

Mo 

69,171 



1158,472 18984)7 to 

1885-IS. 
70,684 1898-87 to 

11'liO-L'. I. 
11181 1SDIHI7 to 

IKUK11. 
109,299 niri;.»7 to 

19S5-S8, 
102,508 . Igys-iaofi 

ro 1028-2U. 



S5*,240 



25,500 iwn-01 ti. 

iraa-at 
b.<8» laee-r* to 

1988-88, 
B9.87B Do , 






rs,lfl3 J60fi-!i7 t„ 
1925-S8, 

8 J, HI 1SW7-B8 to 
183*37, 



25,240 132>1!> 177,;«II IKI^SCS 



2,188 



30,098 288,949 



3,188 1898-88 id 

1915.16, 
^58,:wi 189P-0B to 
1927-281, 






2,138 20,008 238,'iWl 2«I,*SH 

I 



Cables showing the tRoaftEss 



FOEE8T DIVISION. 



DETAILS OF 



Namo of 


ClaiB 


Forost 


of 


Divinioii. 


Forest 



Area in acbf.8. 



South Chancla 



Total 



A clain 
B 1 o1»hh 
B II ol&M 



TJndor Withnnt 

Working Workinpr 

Plum. Plan?-. 



202,400 225 223 
219,28s 
382,10U 



388,400 770,611 



Total f'gruftt 
area of 
Division. 



Name of Working 

Plana relating 

to each Forest 

Division 



Principal species 
dealt with. 













U 






u 


Uj 


[S 


Cfc 




P 














G 


IJu 



North Chancla 



Ke->orV«a ■ I 
B 1 olam . 



887,09. 



1 

'- 



Total 



v^,r } a — 



War 



168.059 



Total 



■158.0.'.!) 



Ruipur 



Total 



G hand Total 



S78.461 9,400 



873,401 (1,400 



.187.023 (• Ahiri Eiuiro Forest-. 

219.28s 

303.1O(i '. Ghoto l!.ma« 



1,039,011 



837.99: 
27W5I 



Saluri and AinM 
Foveatfl> 
W a r o r a Range 

Forrwtn. 

J! o h a r 1 i Range 

Furies. 
-■! H a v c I i Kaojrc 
Forests. 
Guii^i-wahi Kani'P 

Fnn.'htr'. 

firahmapnri Eaujfo 

Foroete, 
W a i r a \? a rh n ni$ 
L| Dlittbn U a i.i g- e 

Foi'e,fltx. 



837.9W 270,455 3/10M5O 



458.059 



T 1 Avviliauge Forests 

i i Khujulali Halite 
| Forests. 

But Punch Rann'o 
Koivnts. 
; West Psaeh Bangs 
FoivhIs. 
Uiiim R a aga 
l_] Formats, 



455,049 



79,8fil-' 



879.8iH 



48WL9W 



Billari Glmjiwft 
Range Forests. 

Sirpnr Khullari 
Kanpe F'oroeta. 

Dhanturi K a ng c 
1'orosta, 

Laun Kanc^f Foroftt> 

Balod R a n g o 

Forests. 
Sihawa Suji' 

Forests. 



it I 



CENTRAL 



1 11 



11 
11 
13 
11 



•' 



MADE IN TTOBKINQ PLANS 1H INDIA. 



WORKING PLANS. 

AmKA IN ACRES tlNDKB UirKKBJiNT SYLVlOOLTn RAL ST8T*lfR. 



hi ' 



ill 

o I-, • 

' n EC ^ 

T? c tn z. 
J3 JSJ *S ft 






r P *- 



; tx Group Selection 

' £» ai Method. Method. 



*PD| 



pq o -w g,^; 



'£ E ' : 



6tL 






Moihud | Ari>a 






Motl.od. ardi 
.Method 



PROVINCKS- 



>iW. 



19,575 



10.S7S 



19.S7J 



mont lati'd I'd 

Kel- I )ln£* or 

Ho-- - . l-rt*rorked 



I2.55B 



t.".,2M 
15,21-4 

:i2,i:r,] 
62^12 
88,S4S 
M.171 

47.U0 



86,305 

172.27 J 



l'.)7,> i 



28.284 
76,290 

170,3117 



iHft,i',:!8 u:i:i,7['s 



J 



.'5,178 
48.M7 

195,374 

IttfiOt 



4H.13H 
■12,541 
(.'.i.'.'M 
37,484 
fl.TW 

289,777 



25,412 



Bfl,8»4 
81,486 



ic.i.nsrt 
2>MtRl 
78,flS8 
37,880 

21R282 

JM 

75.220 
67.798 

141,255 
51,120 

■Jl'i.t.,,; 



('.rand 
Total. 



Period of BlJMUm. 

puPh 
Working 

Tim 



4I.*K2 
217,5 IK 



J •!<('.■ -117 to 

1684-98 

ISW-lflWl 

to IWM*. 



26&400 



12,551> 1865 (jo 1024 

60,94.1 1898-89 to 

IBS7-88, 
2(8,2:14 i-;U(:-!l7 to ' 

1885-38. j 
183,851 1897-9H to ' 

lilll-12, 
l;«i,4fi7 1HUU-H7 to 

HKJ5-2I.. 
!M,!.:;i2 i«i.',.}M! lo 

19*24-25. 
170,307 i 



l 17,886 
(;:i.t22 

148,*B7 
76,83* 
68,408 

*R8,05e 



lfM-88 to 

J 024-2.5, 

D.., 

IBM :>r. to 
iski'J- :'.. 

1W4-WS tu 

unei-a*. 

Do 



''.'•■»« JKH4-H5 to 

iDia-i4. 
i ".'in ifem-m to 

1B25-2C. 
H2,!i7o 1HHH44 to 

116KI-93. 
151,875 isitH-99 ti> 

1997-33, 
M.8S7 i »,",»* to 

1922-221 
*K>.IJ7U ifuMI to 1B30.I 



mMi h::j,k;] 



1597.378 9,588,209 



u 



Cables showing the progress 



— 1 

m 

I 

it 


' 


FOREST DIVISION. 


B,*B. 


DETAILS OF 


Name of. 

Fore«t 

Division. 


Claws 

of 
Forest. 


Arka in a< 


Namo of Working 

Plans relating 

to each Fordnt 

Division. 


Principal species 
dealt with. 


K 
B 

M 

s 

i* 

O 

MM 

u 


i 

i 

bo 

B 

'o 

t> 

& 

B 
a 
K 


TJndor 

Working 

Plan*. 


Without 

Working 

t'laur. 


Total Forefit 
area of 
Division. 


1 


Molgliat 
Total 




449,540 
449,540 


89,809 


962,821 


BaiivLparh-Gugnmal 
Forest*. 


C 


ENT 
5 


EAI. 


39,809 
161,741 
161,741 


902,821 






... 


Ainraoti , 
Total 


161,743 
161,743 








•»1 

2,994 


Loni-BIi o n g a o n 

Forests. 






Bnldana and 
Akola. 

Total 
Yeotm»l . 

1 Otftl 




501,770 


504,770 


.,. 




1 
7 
1 


... 


2,991 
12,027 


D01.77G 


504,770 


- 


... 


.., 


751,262 


763.2S9 
703,289 


Pod pan (fa Reserve . 


... 


12,027 751,262 


... 




24 
i 


Dotal 
Total 




755.RS4 


90.672 

90,672 

1,066,31. j 


840,350 Boltil Forest Divi- 
sion. 




'('55,684 


846,350 
1,24C,83&. 


... 


... 


NirBtu 
Total 




180,524 


Kalibhi'i Working 
Circle. 




180,024 ' 1,066,315 


1,2 16,831! 
4,483,818 


• 


... 


Gains Total. 




1, -400,769 3,0?5,049 
7,479,876 0,601,723 


... 


- 




GRAND TOTAL 




14,081,601 


... 




1 


Coorg 
Total 


Reserved . 


113,727 


219,199 


1 

1 

1 
332,9204 

I 


Dovanmohi-Mawkal 
Forests. 

Arkeri Reserved 
Forests. 

Anekadu-Attar For- 
es ta. 

Datum Reserved 
Forests. 

Nalko ri-Ha t g a t 
Forest*. 


C 
1 

1 

1 

1 

4 


'OO 




113,727 219,199 


332,926 


... 


... 








G&amd Total. 


113.727 


219,199 


332,92<; 









MADE IN (VOttKIXG PLANS IK INDIA. 



£5 



WORKING PLANS. 



Area in acres undue diitkbknt Syt.vkti.ti kai, Sysikms. 



I f 

s g o 






T3 a e 
O £ ,. 

£•« §j Group 
* £ „; Method 
I B o c 



Selection 
Method. 



PROVINCES— coucM. 



T "5 






Simple 
Coppice 
MvtW 



Ci ppift' 

with 

Stand- 

ardh 
Method. 



Method 
of lm- 


A roil 
ondsc 


prov - 
nioiit 


Utircpu- 
UiUid fpl- 


Kl-I- 


HnffH or 
Unworkod 


a>?,576 


lo 1.901 


297,.">7G 


l.'.l, ;kh 











iirniid 
Total. 



Period 

I'ltch 

Worki 
l'lun 



lr.1 0C4 119,510 !8!>:MH tn 

19H7-1'8. 



1,994 



2,091 



13,827 



12,027 



407,1)2-1 



sum ]HP. r ,-!n; to 
ijto-io. 



1 2,091 



12,027 1*03-91 (, 

wio-ii. 



12.02 



B18.W0 , 755,684 1897-98 to 
1826-27. 



1(17 .024 3-18,600 | 755,681 



sans 



... 

3,894 

24,517 
RG. 



35,mo 



97,878 180,524 1897-91 tu 
W28-S7 



702,028 .2,640,101 



83,148; 97,370 

598,000 

4,077,01*6 



700.77,', 



12,877 



30,771 



43,651 



43,051 



12.2H' 
18,202 

11,303 
41,912 



r.,087 

22,777 
28,16-1 



18(1,524 
1, 100.709 

7,179.87* 



41,912 



28,101 



17,071 1899-1900 to 

lOftfl-10. 
1H.262 1897-98 tu 

1911-12. 
12,877 1801-90 to 

I90H-09. 
11503 1898-11100 to 

| 1913-14. 
jlJ.SIil 1880 to 

1910. 

113,727 ' 



Emu. 



113,727 



26 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROGRESS 



e 






eu 


O 




*J 




6 


B 


J 


§ 




~ 


4 




s 


» Jfc 





FOREST DIVISION. 



DETAILS OF 



Nftnao of 

ForuHt 

Division. 





Abe* ih aches. 


rlfl- 

of 

Forwt 


Under 

Working 

PlanK 


Without Total Forest 
Working nresi of 
Plann, Division. 







Name of Working 

Plant* relating 

to each rore^t 

Division. 



Principal spedes 
dealt with. 



C KaHM-rod . 89,070 
Ajmor . j : Protected . i J1J 

(.i Un<*ln aho,] . 



Total 
"■* Granu Total 



Tlieyetinjn 



Tata] 



Ueaorvud 
dnoUwad 



Pronm 



r Reserved , 

t I UlK'luKSf'd . 



Total 



II 



c a, 



Ziproi 



Bpnorvod . 



fatal 



ThfUTiw 



uddy .j 



Uimurved . 
Vnr'hi«!-('d . 



88,780 

89.7F0 

84,204 

1,142 

85,8*6 

208,080 

208.080 
■25B37S 

2M.87S 
M0.8S8 



l.OOfl 

3.471 

4,486 

4 485 



90,(178 



PI',1/0 1 

IIS f j A jmcr-Mp r w u r a 
3.471 J ForoPtB. 



i ^ 












■J* 


Jh 






o 


CC 


£ 


fcn 










w-< 










O 




M 






^■s 


.5 


fl* 


£ 


I 6 " 


1 



AJMER 

4 ... 



94,2«5 
P4.205 



V8S.27G 
1,845,24] 

&.1W.48? 

■HI], 771 
P&8,0£2 



3(19,480 } East. Y»nia._ Sal- 
> snivii and Timiuw 
1,846,363.) BsMrveH. 



2.21.'.,!- 43 



<;0!».S51 SIjwcIo Forests 
9(48,082 Nftwin Fortwtt 



1,8*9,888 1.517,1198 



Total 



SS0.SH 



23,680 
344,061 



2(17.731 



25.808 
110,1*6 



| Karipyi Forefltn 

280588 I Gnrnon KorcrtK 

21-1. 051 I B m. w li i n-Minbn 
Foroats. 
t T«nBgayo Forests . 



524,(109 



f Thon/e Bgkwi-o 

1 Kadin Bilin Reserve* 



226,131 
110.14(1 ! Kon 



Mokka ,. . 

Minhla Ronevve 
Piwtpok, S'ifkwin Mid 
Thindawyo Re- 
L eorvoa. 



135.954 



33IJ.2S0 



s 



BUR 



1 




1 




3 




1 





1 




1 




1 









1 




1 ... 


II... 


1 ... 


1 ... 


j 
■ ... 








made in Working plans in indu. 



WORKING PLANS. 



Area jn aoeeis vkdik ciKFtEiss-r Siiyvjciii/rvBiL. Stbtsms. 



,-_J £^ 4£ 


q; a. 


■ » ° 

9 S 






"J?* bo 


en 




? 03 

ja— i S 


a? 

©.5 


11 -1 



Group 
Method 



Selection 
Mutbod. 



MEEWAEA. 



MA. 



3 5 



\ 
I 

, . Method 
Coppioo , i m . 

Nmplr- with . 

Coppuv Stand- | j. 

Method, arils u. 
Method. Ungs 



Aim 

u ml ar 

Unri'pni- 

hlll'll T?l-I- 

Unpri or 
Uiiwurki'd 



(tvutuH 

Totnl. 



Period of 

fach 
Working I 
ri.Li.. 



'Ill viltm. 



41,101 

11 .101 
lUill 



4S,C7P. HI.TBO 



4B,fi79 88,580 



tiLSft 89,780 



1sim;-;i7 tu 
im:.-iii. 



SS S4G 

7:1.181) 
1M.W1 

20S,(«0 ; 

4,fi0fi 

iil,77: ; : 

srym 

108,878 

JS6.S78 

fj:i,7;;--i 
M.,l'.i2 

is,Bea 

25.4SS 



8^8*8 

7'.,4H.) 

131,691 

■Moao 

■v sm 

61,778 
88JBI 

ioi;,87S 



1IWW7 to 
J«17-;1K 



E3es-9B tu 
39si-aa, 

1888-81 to 
1 98SI- ii ; l. 



isna-03 to 
lMi-ia. 

1KHMHI tn 

1988-24 
1k;iii-!I] Lo 

lUlil-lin. 
I891-W in 

1B30-H, 



ase«7i 



13,7.1' 
S1.19S-8 

using 

■24,fi«v3 
ST., 113 

111,890 

201JJ20 



1&S5 tolOH 

1 WWi-Sfl to 
HJI4-1.'.. 

188:i-vti to 
l'«Mt-]5. 

itiKvM.; t-i 

1U14-JK. 

It*Lit.il9'J3 



isw-oc fa 

19SK 



28 



TAJJUvS SHOWING 'IHK l'l.OGKEBS 



I 



i 
■J 



FOREST DIVISION. 



DETAILS OF 



ABBA JN ACBfcR. 



Nairn 1 of Claw 

Furi-Ht of Under 

Diirinion. Forwrt, Working 

Plan*. 



6fl m 

■s I 



■a 

I 

I 

J 



Eangoon 



Total 



Po K u 



Total 



f Eosorvod . 173,5tt4 
1^ UncIu8Bod 



f BeMr 
1 ETnoli 




' Name of Working Principal speoies "" .5 i 

Pimm ri'lutinp dealt with. « 

Without TotiU I-oronl tu each Fore* I ' e * 

WorkiDf aroaof Division. . "S 

Flatii. Division. ^5 h 



I 



1245,545 f Bangoon Plains 

) ' Forests. 

) R a n g s u a Hill 
1S5.62C ( F-nv-Bts. 



402,171 



Eoaerroil 1-16,271 | 684,678 

lassod . ... 1G1.091 



780,349 ( South /.amayi Eu- 

Hurvc. 



780,3 19 f 
161,831.1 



146,471 



BaHHfin 



Total 



Henzada 



Total 



'\ L'nciaiHcd 



785,lfl8 ■ 941,440 



BSiS'il 022,271 

1,927,680 1,'J27,«80 



2. 1511,951 3.888,951 



I K'OHI 

■\ Unc 



Ifesoivod 

lftBBL'd 



RoROl'Vod 



Arakan . j v 

Total 



1 



<3kand Total. 



llfcosurved . 



Taungoo 



I 



^ UnoVi -!■■■!. 



ToUl 



580,5 M 

154 ,500 



735,408 



586,648 
154,580 



7:15,400 






llO,788,F42 10,788,849 



I _— 

I0,788>i2 10,7SH,S42 

' I 

1*976,485 111,251,(190 20,322,475 



f Kal'aungReaorvo ,, 
I J 

i Bondaunit Itenorvo. 

Went Svm, Sabyin 

759,720 148,321 | 908,041 ' and Luuyan Ku- 

*urve. 
| | liyaukniasin Ka- 
aorve. 



i 



.1,715,252: 1.715,252 



! 



759,720 1,863,578 2,623,293 



Gwetha Eoaorve 

Saing W o r k i n g 

Circle. 
P.yu Chaung and 

Pyn linn BeaorTim 




H.ADE IN WORKING PLANS IK INDIA. 



29 



WORKING PLANS. 



Area in a.'reh cndhu different SiLvicnLTXHAi. Ststkmh. 



a U 2 

« a? . 



= 55 



CO jj yj I 



1.-S S » " ; ,S it' Method. 

to ft 5 tc c ^ ; !» 

i « s oi * s « ,:a a t> ;, 



ronld. 
... 



Selection 
Method. 



M 

£■8 

' :n 



Method Arm Parted of 

Pimple with ,. v n _ ( ; ril „ d Working 

C.>ppi<v Shuid- M|flIlt latoa Fol . Total . 
Method. arils F( ,j. Iintf!i ut 



... 



58,014 

] 

120,570 

I 

173,5-V 



Plan. 



Method. 



Iintr». L'n.vorkeil. 



146.271 



146.S7I 



53,014 I W '5 In 1(121 

i2i>,:,7u iwi-itn ) 11:15 
17:i,.v«i 



148,271 I9Q5toIM5 



] 10,371 



1,070,485 

188,834 
18,757 

91.GM 

25,4'.12 
30,872 

H,.-,3x4 
287,6-17 

759,720 




1,070,485 



1MV.KU 1891-95 to 

1MU-24. 
23,757 Do. 



04,601 '1H97-O8to 

IU2H-29. 
25,431! 1BUH-SW to 

1925-2(1. 
30,872 1 88B-19M to 
| 192B-29. 



Do. 

1892-93 to 

1034-85 



10-> 1 
287,647 

759,730 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROGRESS 



S 

8 
E 

[J 



|;"3 
lid 



FOREST DIVISION. 






Natroo of 

Formt 

Division. 



Clans 
at 



AUSi IN ACBtfi. 



Under Without 



Votwt. Working Working 



Shwogjin 



Total 



West 
Salweon . 



Total 



f |Rei 
ll Un 



Ki«er»»d . 
clawed . 



Plain.. 



Pinna. 



iVarutj of Working 
Plans relating 
I otu,l Forest to each Forest 
ii ran of Division. 

Division. 



Principal species 
dealt with. 



DETAILS OF 

60 o 

P Oi 

3 ! '^ 
IS CO 

£ X 



' Renewed . 
Unclaimed. 



384,107 70,831 | 

1,806,100 

384,167 1,945,931 



227.S87 
2,23,-., Cm? 



I 



Tliaungyin . < 
Total 



:, -103,494 



Renerved . 
Un^Uvsaod 






H Atauan 



Total 



{ 



lltMorvocI . 
Unclosed . 



Boaorved 





848,714 
3,2S5,12fl 

2,573,«I4 






478,148 

2,72-i ,m 

3,200,4ni; 



Pirtlth . J C""»crveu . 

Tonaasonm . 1 lincl&Hgoa . 

Total 



403,998 | Tonkan Eeserre . 
i 
1,860,100 Nyauuglebin Work 
ing" Circle. 

2,330,098 



227,887 
2,385,607 



2,103,494 



318,714 
2,235,120 



2,!>73,S34 



170,112 
2,72 MJ6 J 



GRAND TOTAI, 



tipper Chind-J Roflorvod 
win. 1 ! UnelftHBod 



1,113,8*7 



S3 1,450 
0.138,438 



6,669,888 



Total 



a "3 
i 1 



ft C ,, ■,,, I Ronorviid . 

b a Myittha .-( UnulMBBd. 






ToUl 



Lower Oliind-J Bowrvod . 
win. \ ' Unelmtod . 



19,117,120 



968,098 

•1,731,760 



5.089.850 



478,064 
010.0SO 






Total 



1,094,1-14 



497,958 
417,920 



915,878 



3,2WU00 



831,150 
6,13k, 13« 



0,909,888 
'-0,201,1113 



958,096 
17:11,760 



5,GS9,B5fi 



478,001 
016.U8U 



1,084.114 



497,958 
417,920 



818,878 



« O 

IS a 
2; vc 



BURMA 
1 



... 



MA DK IN WORKING PLANS IN INDIA. 



11 



WORKING PLANS. 



AEEA IS ACRES ESMS DIFVEKKKT Sylyicl-ltukal Syhtmis. 




Group 
Method 



i: 

-' 






Solectiou 
.Method. 



Coppice 
Simple wita 
Coppice Slaud- 
Mutb d. MO< 

Method, 



Method 
of Im- 
prove- 
ment 
.Fel- 
lings. 



Art' ii 

under 

Unveeii- 

luted b'ol- 

lin^H or 
Unwovkud. 



itnnid 
Total. 



Pcriw) of 

e.inlj 
Working 



llkllARkn 



[S1S-14, 

! tti.I«) UHB-87 t<i 

I8S4>SS. 




32 



TABLES SHOWING THK PROQKi..,., 



FOREST DIVISION'. 



Asia in iOBIS 



go 






III 

fc.fe 



DETAILS OF 



Name of 

Forest 

Division. 



Cla«s 

of 
Foroft. 



Under Without 

Working Working 

Plana. I'lana. 



j Name of Working 

lotal Forest t0 saon Fcirefit 

area of Division. 
Division. 



1 

1 OT 



Mn 



J Reserved . 
' I TJnolMsed 



Principal species 
dealt with. 



738,302 
1,475,520 



738.302 
1,475,020 



Total 




2,213,822 2,213,822 



lr.tfcn. J Reserved . 24,320 351,386 375,700) „ , , _ 

Kfttha . ■thjnoltt.ied. .. 1,401,138 1 401,138 j" Mohnjm Eg 

Total . ... 24,320 1,752,524 1,779,8** 



Bhamo . .-! E^erved 
I Unclassed . 

Total . 



215,010 
2,555,520 



215,619 
i.555,520 



Myitbyina 



( | Ranorvcil . 
I ' Uuolissed . 



Total 
Grand total 

Ruby Mines . 

Total 
Mnndalay 



2,771,139 2,771,130 



108,800 108,800 

8,814,400 8,814,400 



3,923,200 3,923,20) 



21,320 18,360,563 



Reserved . 158,938 071,402 



Total 



Unclaseod 



Reserved . 
UnolftBHcd. 



Yaw 



I Roterved . 
' 1 I ni.ilae.--od 



Total 



2,025,074 



lS>-tS8l5 
830,400 
2,025,674 



Nanhati, Nanpaw 
and SuIidU Re- 
servos. 



158,938 | 3,207,136 ' 3,450,074 



269,610 724,320 993,945 
5,936,540 5,930,540 



209,616 



Madayn, Range 

May my o Fuel He- 
serve. 



0.000,875 6,930,191 

I 



561,065 ' 501.065 
1,889,871 1,889,871 



S,4E0,93G 



2,450,936 



■s? 


0> 


tc 


a 


v. 


fc 



BURMA 



... | .. 



«ADB IN WORKING PLANS IN INDIA. 



:l:i 



Si Ki UK! 




34 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROGRESS 





B 


1 


FORES 


T DIVISION. 








DEI' A I 


LS OF 




_. 


3RE3. 


/ 
Name of Working 1 
Plans routing 
to each Forest 
Division. 




1 

Same of 

Oivision. 

i 


Cksa 
! of 

I 
i 


ART A IN A 


a 

\u i 

Principal specios -5 ' 

dealt with. "S &■ , 

g-s $ i 

J 3 , 1 1 


1 

I 

a, 
9 

! 

1 


1 

h 

' J 
II 

35 


Under 
1 Wurkinp 
J Plans. 


1 

Without 
Working 

J'] MS. 


1 

1 

, Total Forest 
| area of 
Division. 

: 




- 




















BURMA 






Minbu . j 
Total 


Reserved . 
Unolasserl . 


255,239 4.85,171 
840,361! 


7*1,410 
840,300 

1,580,776 


I'anngdwiugyi Re- 
serve. 


3 






255,239 1,825,537 


















' Yeni Reserve 

Minhyin RflHorve . 
Yunbin FtoHervo 
Sinttie EeflSrre 
Npa.aik Re-orvo . 




1 i 

1 






1 


Fyirimiuoa . -j 


RoRi'rvad . 
Unclaeseri , 


658,8 C 5 18,078 
21,760 1,194,880 


(J7«,963, y ;.";"« m p J , l "' 

' aeterva 


1 


:.-. 


I 








TaunKnyo Forest* . 
1 Pozauig dating 


1 

1 




1 

i 


ffl 

I 


Total 






lieKerve. 
1 Ziyatng Mehnw 
(. Reisorvea. 


1 




i 


080,615 1,212,958 


1,893,003 






Southern f 
Sh-in J 

Stilton. ( 

Total . 


Reserved . 
Unolaeaml . 




172,800 
8,03S,40 r > 

8,211,200 


172,800 
8,038,400 

8,211,200 


- 


. 






... 




1 - 


'iBAND TuTAI. 

(Southern Cir- 
ula.) 




1,304.438 »8,1B8,9W 


21,523,080 


j- 


— 




Ohand Total 
(Burma.) 




3,603,130 79,888,321 


83,491,451 




1 


i 
... I 


Reserved . 


179,400 


179,409 




| 


Total 




179,460 


179 460 





\~ 


! 






f Reserved 
) I'nolasnod 


101.930 
l,Ub,HJ 


ldl,91ii 

1,14^49 




~ 


-c 




Total . 


... 


1,850,079 


1,250,079 






1 





V-ll>B 



IN WORKINa PL&NS IN INDIA. 



X, 



W&SMB PLANS. 



AREA IN ACBBS UNDER DIFFERENT SYLVICULTUBAI STBrjHS. 



'Ccppice 1 ^ 03 

Simple with ' ofIm " 

,' oppic, 3-u.d- 1 , pTOTe - 

|Melho.i. ards I 

'Method. ,. . 
lings. 



mont 
Fol- 



Area 

latad ST«i- 

lhips ur 
ITnwnrked. 



('■in nil 
Tutul. 



T'«TVd it 

I'll*. 



RrMimiii 



255,239 



2:.5,28!l 



255,2H» 



ESS.SW 



1M7-W ti> 
1926-27. 



Bii 818 


1 
188 telfiST. 


18! sicr, 


1381 to 1889, 


>• i ,8» 


1909 to WHO. 


eT,M > 


11HPJ t lWI'J. 


80,-VB 


IB 1 to l'.'ftl. 


]2.,7I.;2 


BOB tu 1988. 


87.S97 


1SHH t.. ]D3S. 


5?,0] 1 


1998 l.o IMS, 


21.704 


1803 Ui ins. 




880,815 



86 



TABLES SHOWING THE I'ROGUKSS 



FOREST D1VI8ION. 



Ami. in *cbkb. 



b 

"8 i 

Jl" G 



Name of 

Purest 
Pitfiaion. 



q 



lit 



I 






i 



li- 
ar,- 



Total 



Total 



Total 



Total 



Total 



DETAILS OP 



of 
F ii i i • it. 



Unilfir Without 

«.. riling Working 

PUnH. Plans. 



Total Forest 
urea of. 
JJiTtHion. 



No mi; of Working 

j?l«t« relating 

to cuoh forest 

Drvinion. 



s 



Principal Rp^ciws 
dealt with 



.IS 



151,279 



Total 






2,i6H,376 3,280.521 






151,279 



5,SlS/JU0 



1,237,807 



47,191 '■ 1,285.001 



],1C1,Ko3 217,63+ 



i3U:i,lll«) 264,828 



1,879,467 
2,864, li*S 



2,SS6,393 1,241,086 M86.SW 



708,786 18,002,873 



2.19(;,906 2,2io,yu.s 

8,.Wa. , .Wl l.'J96,T0(! 

l.«.l'.7ffl) 3,WoXH9 

T,»7tM*7-H G.IW1.72:! 



1*,7<®,859 



4,7 1 ia,S7i 



4878,0110 



4/185,818 



li.081,601 



SUMMARY OF TOTALS 






M4.DE IN WORKtN'Q PLVNS IN I»WA. 



37 



WORKING PLANS. 



AKE4 IN ACRES C N DIB DIFF1ESNT STL V1CDLTDRAL STSTlMfl. 





h 

§ en 


9>.2 




3-c 


On" 


Si . 




xc/j a 


x £ ^ 




SI? | 

PI s 


-d o » c 

fi OJ * * 

©tn aw 




si .a 



Group 
Meihod 



Solection 
Method. 



BY PROVINCES. 



21,523 



2,99-1. 



21,517 



IUA12 






17.595 1,399,911 



£-5 



Simple 
coppice 
Method. 



Coppice 
with 
Stand- 
ards 

Mctlu.d. 



Mot bod ' Area 
of Im- under 




Period of 


RlMAKI, 


pr-'ve- . unrogu- 
nient lated Fel- 


Graml 

Total, 


nuoh 
Wurtnii,- 


Fel- lings or 
lings. iUnworkod. 

_ 1- 




Plan. 





29.118 



r,7t!i 



151,279 



WH iCA'W : 408.91:1 .171,131 2,M8,37l5 



s7,BGfi 879 274,980 



7,348 5.',.t;05 522,0(10 28H.g7B 1,237,807 






41B.070 



162,180 



232,295 34.8,25* 1, 1(11,8:3 



87.9CG 879 09-1,0511 



7,3lh 217,^25 754,4.55 037,137 2,399,r,U0 



2t,73fi 



75,952 



591,212 



15,971 



19,575 



01,380 



788,137 1,690,942 3,2.v;,393 



51,194 



70fi,76r. 



53(1,719 9W).38fl 972,307 2.40C.BC6 



I 165,309 



3S,HC 



70-2,028 



9.9*1 2,507,379 



799,775 



2,0*0,191 



3,5-2,203 



598,900 1,400,769 



UUn,m 7.179378 



" Inclndia 

7,977 

uorot of 

1. NcVi f i id 

ton ml in 

the 
Sowallk 

and 

Jutiniur 

DiTiHiona. 



"" 



.38 



TABLES SHOWING THE PROGRESS 



i 



.5 






§3 



Total 



FOSEST DIVISION. 



DETAILS OF 



Akca in ACEIH. 



Nnmeof 


ClttHS 


Foro«t 


of 


Division. 


Forest. 



Under Without I'lit.'.l furest 
Working Wui king aro:i of 

Plans. I'laiiB. Division. 



113,727 219,100 



332.926 







to 


m 








r. 






m 








j 


m 


Naraa of Working 




a 


PlanH relating 


Principal species 




0> 

e 


to ouch Foivwt 
Divifum. 


dealt with. 


- 






m s 


u 


i 




£^ 


8 






M 


H 






So 


3 






s. 


SB 



SUMMAEY OF TOTALS 



S3 



< 



S-E 



Total 



80.780 i,485 94.,-J!i. r i 



1,070,485 19,551,990 20,322.475 



'1,1*3,887 10,117,126 20.2CI.OI8 




MADS TO "WOUKING PLANS IN INDIA. 



30 



WORKING PLANS. 



\bea in acres tjkder diffirknt Stlticultoral Ststems. 






ah Bos, 



; 5 S 

3 W H 



: _tf 



Gr.inf> 
!Uetkud 



BY PROVINCES— co»el& 



^election 
Method. 



>>-a 



Simplo 
roppici- 
Method 



! 'nnjlipe 

with 
Stand- 

Moihod. 



43,6f.l 



rtothoi 


Arofi 






of 111- 


tinder 




Poriud of 


jiroTo- 


f ™.- 


Orand 


■tab 


mant 


1 ted b\-l- 


To. ill- 


"Wording 


Kel- 


li nun or 




l'liiii. 


liiiffs. 


Onworked. 







I 



41,012 28,104 li;!,7L>7 



1,070,485 



1,148,888 



l 



41,101 ... 48,679 80,7*0 



1,070,4*5 



14,041 0,608 1,1411,887 



24,330 



assess 



3,<>57,726 



2",83C ■ »:i,960 



21,320 



],3Cl,43H 



2()>HB 818,010 6.508 3,fi03,130 



24,517 



11702 4B474 6,614,034 ... 81,-182 1,617,052 5,210,50.1 0,11*10,247 ;jn,Ml.0«.i 

i i i ' ' 



I'KHiRKB, 



Table 11. 



coni'AitvnvE staikmum 01 imkm.hi.ss haue in morkim. 
plain* i r ro iisT im:< i Mi:i:it ioos. 



42 



Comparative statement of progress made in working plans up to 31st ^December 

1908. 





All! As 


1 OS 


AiiBi* rott 








WHICH 110UKISO 


wiiicu woBJtiao 








PI.A»u 


HAVl! 


I'LANS AW UMNO 


A rea for 








tiy.r.n cunmnii 


cilltl'JXED. 


which 








ANI> SAjiCTlONKJ). 






\\ u iking 
pinna 


Total 

forest 


Ke- 


l'BOVINOE. 










havu 


ma lias. 




At com- 




At com- 


'J'aken 


still to 


urea. 






menee- 


During 


mence- 


ia hauil 


lie taken 








llUUlt of 


tlio ye.ii' 


ment uf 


during 


in hand. 








tin- yt>? 


1908. 


the year 


the vear 










lOus. 




1808, 


1908. 










Sq. M. 


Sq. M. 


Sq. M. 


Sg, M. 


Si). Jl. 


Sq, M. 




Bengal ..... 


G,0r8 




295 




1,613 


7,028 




United ") r , , ,,. . 
., f hue! mi Circle 


1,815 






a 1 


306 


2,155 




( Western Circle , 
vini'Ci. ) 


J, 857 


78 






73 


2,008 




Punjab ..... 


4,013 




3G2 




'1,764 


9,1 "9 




f I'uii'u Circle 
,, 1 VwDMrrim Circle 


1,07-2 








3i'.0H3 


31,754 




1,187 


eoi 


"m 




29005 


31,658 




1 >>orthern Cn-ole . 
K Southern Cirelo . 


S3 




710 


2T6 


27.697 


28,727 




1,811 


8S0 


Iili3 


3 1 P. 


33.2 '8 


38,317 




Kostern Bi.'iiciil iind Annum 


1,10b 




101) 


158 


27,775 


29,235 




-Central C Northern Ciicle . 


3,002 




939 




•> r.on 


7,370 




lVo- } Southern I'-Ocle 


5,6KI 


57 


... 




2,020 


7,623 




vinccs. ( Herar Circle 


2,189 








4,820 


7,0. if) 




C«..r(5 


178 








312 


520 




Nonh-West frontier 


185 


51 


... 






230 




Ajiiier ..... 


140 




. 




8 


lis 




Bnluchi»tan .... 






.^ 




■>80 


280 




Andamuoa ..... 






317 






1,953 




Total Bknual 


30,218 
2,'>8I 


1,607 


3,750 
H02 


7s;i 
1,071- 


U-8.790 
2,599 


205,160 
8,811 




r XovUioru Circle 


255 




ajftdrm . 5 Central Ciicle 


2,177 


248 


1,721 


536 


2,558 


7,243 




(. Southern Circle 


2,1117 


101 


5:>3 
2,91(1 


(i 

l.eie 


M88 

7.S13 


5,553 




TOTAl 


6,625 


19,607 




t Northern C'irolo 
tj . \ Central Cirelo 
Bo '" 1 "!' J8wtlu.ni Circle . 


1,787 


„ 


to 




707 


2, MO 




2.2KO 


li 


414 


"se 


2,264 


5,106 




930 


25 


201- 


61 


3,379 


4,592 




(.Brail Circle 


1,032 

6,010 




1 - 

| 

S>2 


100 


73 


I 1,105 




TOTAT, 


79 


6,123 


13,363 





Table III. 

.STATEMENT SHOWING AREAS RROIGHT UNDER THE CONTROL 
OF SANCTIONED WORKING PLAN'S UP TO 31ST DECEMRER 1908. 



44 



Areas brought under the control of sanctioned working plan* vp to 31st 
December 1908 in the provinces outside the Madras and Bombay 
Prctt'rfi'iiciex. 





t'olilST AttEA IN 


SQPATCE 


miles. 


Area for 














which 
working 


Propor- 












tion of 












plana pre- 


f..rest area 


PnoviNCi, 






Uu- 




pared and 


under 




_Be< 
served, 


Pro- 
tected. 


cinnsnil 
State, 


Total. 


sanctioned 

np m 31st 

We-i-cmlter 

1008. 

Sq. M. 


sanctioned 

working 

plrsns. 








Ter c.Tit. 


Bengal .... 


4,235 


2,703 




7,02s 


IfiSi 


72 


United Provinces 


4,001 


30 


"42 


4,l('»:s 


8,760 


00 


Poniab .... 


8,178 


5,2.1.] 


1,722 


9.189 


4,013 


44 


Burma .... 


88,868 




107, Wl 


180,466 


8,939 


4 


Eastern Id ngttl and Assam 


6 ",■■(! 


4 


2. 1.87 3 


88.886 


1.1 03 


4 


Cflntral Proviiici-s includ- 


Sl.HJt!) 




a 


28,003 


1J.68S 


53 


ing IlRrar. 














Coorp .... 


520 






£20 


178 


34 


North- West Frontier 


23(1 


... 




Z'M 


836 


100 


AjraiT. .... 


142 




e 


MM 


MO 


05 


Baluchi-tun 


a«o 






280 






Andaman* 




8,068 


1,794 

188,8*9 


1,863 
888,180 






ToTAT, 


81,925 


15-5 



CALCUTTA : PRINTED BY St'PPT. GOVT. PBUtTIHO, INDIA, 8, HASTINGS STMBT. 



$Ott»t Jamp^U #lo. fO gfoto: r>mvj £•**« Sfco 



BURMESE LEZA WOOD 




$ot*i>t §amp{\tti *3to. 10 



Joust Economy &*ia*s §fco. 3 






BURMESE LEZA WOOD 









( LAGERSTR(EAUA TOMENTOSA. Presl. ) 



R. S. TROUP, F.C.B.. 

■■I wM Ptmt EcmmIU I* Ifet OvrfrMtat ol 1 



• 











' 


CALCUTTA 








SUPERINTENDENT OOVERNMKNT PRIlNTINQ, 


INDIA 








IWOV 





t*U* fl«rt*o Two M 3}, 



Fampkln St. 1, CitmlMrt *rffcj So. J .—lata m OUUaaUea •' Khalr 

Mr. Poiu Siitib, F.C.I.. ate, liaparlal Forart ClmM. 
fampKUt St. S, Fmtt Ztologt B*r\H So. L— Tie AM a tfc af Bark barta* aecUv I* tk« 

CoaJtrrw Fer«att «• l*r Aah CaleaMeat 1m by Mr I P. Slaabtaf , FX.B , 

F.ZJ*., F.KJ, ImJ-tL) Far-* 2eok*;iet. 
Jfaeiaaf'f Jf ». 9, F*wt.af F/ae S*rU* So 1. Blawary ar PnM Twh»if»] Tm by 

Mr, A. M- F. Co*.*, K.Y4), KZ.8, LFi, l»parial SopfrtaasaJaW, Wwfcaf Ileal. 
FaaplI'' JV<>. *, Fw«f Xtowmj aWi» So. 1— late NlMlkl Im CaJtlmlaa bj 

Mr. D. K Atm, K>tra A»»l«taut Ceniwrvatar of Farem, Cminl Prtmuiaa. 
f*mr*l* St. II. HglnrtUnr* thru; So I.-Jtat*. ■ U li BeafnU by Mr. A. L. 

Mclntiw, I.F.8., Ca**«r*«Kw af Fa r— la . Bee gal. 
ftmtkM So. 0, Sflrvmltmrt aWeM Wo. 1-lMii Fereet Panrr»d« la tbr talcresl •' 

iu faaaamrai Hater Kepaiy la Bane, by Mr. A Bodfer. I.FJft,, tVptty Cooaamw 

of Fwaata, Banaa. 
TtmfKltt St. 7, Warn* Eemomt Shvi St. S. — let* va ialiaiK Barbie Waad or 

Iran Wee* by Mr, k. 8. Trvnp, Va' H, lstprrtal Fanat Bsoaanlat. 
Ptmykl'i No.H. !»>»,»» /'la. Smn Ao. F-Kati> ob Ar Ollwtioa ef UtatteUraJ Date 

rrtaliajr to lar lYiarlaeJ laaHaa flperir* by Mr. A. M. F. Carole, Imperial Sapariafaa- 

dral of IComt Wurkiaf Plan* 
J'eanvlM Wo. 9, iTorai <tjt riot *«r,.» AV I.-Taale* aaawlajr ten Precnae ate* la 

MarkUg PUaa by Mr. A. M. F. Caaeie, larperiel Seaeriat*»d«.t nf Format Working 

PUm. 



BURMESE LEZA WOOD 



(llGERSTRUMIA TOMENTOSA, Presl.) 



t 



BY 



R. S. TROUP, F.c.i!.. 

Imperial F^resl Ei.miimi^i in i he Gwernratnl <ii InJiii 




CALCUTTA 

SUPERINTENDENT GOVERNMENT PRINTING, IMDIA 
1909 



IT 

(Burmese) 
I ocalit) —Burma. 




NOTE ON 

BURMESE LEZA WOOD. 

( LAGERSTRCEMIA TOMENTOSA, Prosl. ) 

Vernacular— I. m |Burmese), 

1. Distribution and Habitat . 

The triv is found throughout tiie greafcw part of Burma in suitable 
localities. It prefers I lie moister types of upper mined, evergreen and 
seiui-eveigreen, and low-lving plains forest!,-. In tin 1 drier ty|ie« of forest 
it is either absent or found only in stunted form. If is out' of tile 
commonest companions of Pj/miatla ( l'y/fri rfolahrifoTmit) in the moiiter 
types of upper mixed fnrett, where it prefer* the lower dope* and well 
drained vullevs where the soil is n-ood. 

i. Description of Tree. 

The Lesa is a large tree, ivarhini: a hri^hf of over 10a fed and a 
girth of 10 to 12 feet ur more in favourable localititw, the hole being 
usually straight, and clean to a Citnntiorabls bright. 

The hark is light grey, fairly smooth, and about i of an inch thick. 
Natural reproduction is, as ft rule, very fair. No aUeinpU have yet been 
made to raise the tree artificially. 

,i Description and Properties of Wood. 

Colour, "'lain, etc. — The wood is light grey to greyish brown, moder- 
alely hard, cloge-grained, with a satiny Lustre. ' he pores are distinct, 
and the medullary rays are very fine. Mr, Herbert Stone, of Birming- 
ham, has reported as follows on a sample of the winid which was sent tn 
him : — 

" I, Offers! lfrniia liiineiiKiNa. Presl., it unknown here. Its chief 
merit is its satiny' lustra, but H in rather cross-grained and brittle 
I do not think that it will fw.d a maikel in Kurope, as the wood it most 
resembles, the American Hindi, lir/tihi h-iita, will prove too strong a 
competitor, being oh tail able of <«pial quality at thirteen pence per cubic 



BURMESE LEZA WOOD 



Point Divi- 
pion. 



Mundaluy 



Pvinrr.aiifi 



Government duty. 



R5 ]iOr ton 



RD per ton in 

till' round. 

RIO [ cr ton con- 
ceited. 

Vcllirg fee «2-B 
per I nr ft'ldi- 
(imiiil in le- 
bcitcs. 



Tounpuo . RS i or t.m 



T . . . , ' Approximate rate at which 

Local market rate. > ; > mber c(JU , d be oxtractod . 



HCO i cr ton ( convert- BlQ per Injj 



cd). 



IK' x. 4'8" / A t local 

!> Railway 

H10 pur ton I Stations, 
(converted) J 



HIS per log". 
18'x4'6'' / 

R50 

(cc 



per tun I 

nverled) J 



At Rangoon. 



TlilM rates arc exclusive 
of duty. 

R3;'> per ton (converted) on 
the Kailuay. 

It8 ] cr ton (round) on the 
railway. 

Hlu per ((in citra f 'i- di'li- 

I very in Rangoon. 1 licsc 

ruled arc exclusive oC duly. 



ft Id tn IS in the At Xyaunghhilhu 1(7 per 
round, at Railway ton (in Uic munil). 
tjtalionx. 

' At Swa HH-IO-0 per tun 
(in the round S. 
6cantliiig price*. 
0x^x18' H6l> per At M vulila H8-10-U per (on 

too. 



(iu the round). 



5"x2 x!8' RSI) per Al Ok win H8-12 l cr tun 
)O0. ' (in l. lie round). 

i 

B"Xt"x!S RjlO por At Rangoon- About Ri-0-0 
1.63. I per Ion more than Iho 

al»o\ c rales. 

6"x2"xl8' HSO per Tlieso rates arc ciolusive of 
ICO. . dutv. 



6"x3"xl8' R80 per 
100. 

7"x3"xl8 HSO per 

lilt). 



QURMKSi: I.KZA WOOD 



Foro*t Divi- 
sion. 



Government duty. 



Tharrawaddy , £5 per km 



Zigon , i l>itlo 



I'iHo 



Buf-ein Ditto 

| 
Tbflungjin . ' ft8 per ton 



i* i_ i *» ^..t* Ap|irii\iiibn(-i» rat' 1 nt which 

Local nmrkot »t* , l^ ^ M bfl rltrnclt{ . d . 



8x2 x IS illOO per 

100. 

10 x2'x Is JUOfl pet 

loo. 

1U0. 

I2"x2"x 18' HisiO per 

100. 



HTtO j'PT ton ii-oinvrti-rl) ai 
LKpadun, TfeoiMc, ,mj 
Mirililn Railway ȣftliotls, 
(excluiiTi' of duty), 

H.7 lo ft8 ppr t»n «t N„t- 
fnlin, ZlfjaRi faking* a It 

ami Ok'jio Kailwnj hU- 
lions. 

RIO to It 11 J»r ton in 

Kuli^c.on (round liniKri. 

TIicm' vut'-i ari' Oioltmivs oT 
duty. 

1M0 ]ut ton (eoHT9Iflos5J ut 

1'roiiii'. 

KBO )ior (on [coitY0rt«i) at 
llmigouii. 

Tlicw lati'B arc eiclniivo ol 

duty. 



H50 per Ion (nmnge RE'1 per ton (oonwlad) at 
for Cfjiivi-rtuil tiui- L'u«<-i'iri Railway station 
borj, or f. o. b. Baucis Port 

iuoi'niivi- of duly and 
i ti n J 



Cost of ("ifroction in tho 
round to Muulijioin in 
fhlituati'd at JUL per ton. 
Tbs nut of »awing i» ia 
Efillnwi : — 



BURM1.H.H LRZA WOOD 



Forest Divi- „ , , , , , , , Anprojimult! rate at wliich 

".ion. tamnmc.utdi.fr. W*l market rate, timber omld bo Mtr^ted. 



A tnran 



H8 per 1<m 



H35 tu linf) [.cr Ion 
(converted i. 



18'X6">3" at 3176 per 

10). 

18'XS*>.'2" nt 35 per 
100, 

18'X4'X2" fit H30 per 
100. 

18'xfi"Xl." at H25 per 
100. 

1R'X5' ■ l' at 3120 per 
II*), 

18' •' '-'' * I" at 1412-i-i 
per 100. 

Co*! of cnrri.'igi' lo 1'iian 
116 per 100 plnnkfi. 

Duly U Mini. 



7 I'isos of (lie Wood. 

Leza-wood is used lor ]ioiiso-l>tii hlinj^- (posts, scantlings, flooring, 
wftllillg and doors), dugout canoes, carts, slinfts ami wheels, yokes, and 
furniture. It in fiJso said to In- used for bows and spear handles. The 
wood is at present under trial for railway sleepers, after treatment with 
preservatives'. Leza-wood appears to be an admirable one lor box-manu- 
facture, and is worths' of attention by manufacture) s of tea boxes and 
other forms of packing eases as well as boxes of a better clsn. 

Leza-wood has recently been tried for match manufacture by the peel- 
in? process, and has been found to produce good splints as well as 
veneers for outer and inner boxes. The wood requires to be boiled for 
10 hours before use. Tlioi splints, like those of many other woods, tend 
to become darker on exposure to the mid, and should therefore be dried 
either in shade or in a special drying apparatus. 



CULCPTri : FBI.VTW) LIT grPDr. OOVT. rBINTI.VO I.NDIJI, », II 18HX0S gTI'lKHT. 



5ot**t <ft»-mpW*t €Jlo. 11 



so tot &;onomit Setio l^fto. 



CARALLIA WOOD 



( CARALLIA INTEOERRIMA. DC. ) 



BY 



R. S. TROUP, P.c.n„ 

lafcrlal Fortst lEcononltt to the Uovcrnncai ol ladli 





CALCUTTA 

SUPERINTENDENT OOVERNMENT PRIM IN 'i, INDIA 

1909 



?*ic4 cT nna» 7wo aiw Six f i« 



^M 




/'. 



Me Puma Bingo, F.C B., «to„ Imperial Vorwrt Ch*nsijt 
}' a mpiht A'ei- 2, J 1 <.yji ffanaii JTo. i.— TM attack, ot Hark boring beetle Id tUe 

loalOrou. ForwU ob tfao Hints Catcbaent Arts by Mr. E. P. Bribing, F.L.S., 
F.Z.S., P.B.B., Imperial Fnrwi Zuologirt, 
/\inijj»f»( A/o. o", fT(Frti»y Plan S*rin ifo 1. — UtoMsry or Forest reohnlaaJ Ternw by 
Mr. A. If. F, Cai'cia, M.V.O., P.Z S., I.F.B., Imparla! SuiM.-rinb'Qd«nt, Workiug Plana, 
ttmpllrl No- 4, Vortti Economf, Srritt Ifo. J. — Not* on Lac- and Lac CnHhation by 
'!-, I>. X. Avaiia, Eitta .Wutaut Conservator of PowiU, C. P. 

l$t .Vo, 5, SgMeuHmr* .Vn'fi AV I- Jr«te» on Sail In Kenfml by Mr. A. St. 
, l.P.Su OaaHrratw of Foir«sU, Bougal. 
Pamphlet So. 8, Sglrivaltur s'.-Nnte on Pofnst ftearrvallOB hi Ulr. lOtartBt of 

ail Fjidunccrnl Watrir aapply tr. Burma by Mr. ,V. Umlgnr. I.F.?., Deputy Count, 
of Forti-U. Uarinii. 
amphlti y* 7, Per**! Eirememy &W« >V. S. — Sow on Andamanf Marble ffuml or 

Zebra Wood by Mr. It. B. 'I - . I.C.U., Imperial Potait Beooomiit. 
ttmpb'' ' S<> 9, Worfciao J J /.i» -Wn-j .Yo. 3. -Koto ihi thr Collodion of Statistical Data 
mUllnir to Uir I'riupi|ini Indlnn Bpeetea by Mr. A. M. F Ctcoja, M.V.u., F.Z- 1.1- - . 
Im]*m! SaperinUurti-ut of SVMfet Working Flat" 
mpkl-i v.. ■<, ii \i,Jt .'»(! p; r„ fi r n'w A'o. «.— -Table* (hovrlug (bf l'rofrtas m ado in 
Working Plana by Sir. A. M. F. CWia, ItVj ■ I ./.-. 1 1 8 . Imperial S.jperlutemtatt 
of For ml Working Fl»u«, 

mpUlrl fa. !n. Fm-tt Ettimemy fl ' — ItftM uu Damn-.- !,,«» WooiJ (Laa-j'rk- 

tr^wlti, Tomento«in) by Mr, R, 9. TrOHp, i'.CU-, Imperial Fonvt EcanamlM. 




CARALLIA WOOD 



(CARALL1A INTEGERRIMA, DC.) 



BY 

R. S. TROUP, f.c.h., 

Imperial Forest Economist to the Governmtnt of India- 




CALCUTTA 

SUPERINTENDENT GOVERNMENT PRINTING. INDIA 

1909 




cw* 



Synu G ludda, Roxb. 

(No English Name.) 

%f Localities.— 5ub-Hima!ayan trad, Eastern Bengal, Assam, Chittagc 
Chota Nagpur, Orlssa and the Ore 





NOTE ON 

CARALL1AWOOD. 



Carallia iiitejrerrima, D. C, ; Syn. C. heuhi, Roxb,, C. ctylanic*, 

Wight, Natural order Ri'H'pkarrx. 

1. Vernacular Vanicv 

Maniairga, Burm. ; Atega, Upper Burma ; J?yi. A micro ; Kiabamj, 
(Bong;.) ChiUagong ; Tteiratenga, kujitekra, kuji!h,ilra, kujttkahtrm, 
l-an/hckcra, rata, * Ass, ; KnjUnar^Clvrn ; Kicrjia, Henjr. ; Piiltimluit, 
Nep. ; J^r, an main. Ki"»! : shfngafi, fiaua*!, Mar.; Jmli/iimtjr, 
tiii/tipunai, amlawnryal , ituditmuria, aiiiUnarn, Kan ; Ptin^rii, maiatleti- 
raii't', Bombay ; K,wtVi, Tel. ; J'iir,iii : i,i, val/iiyam, Mill. 



•.'. Misliibiilioi) nml llaJiit.il. 

The tree is found in ilanri I'verjrifn and nwam|i f>jv<jN in I In' Sub- 
Himalayan tract, a* fur \v<-.f a« IMira Dun, very scarce in thtwvt, 
commoner in the eaKf ; Bengal [up I i Ulii'i ft. in Sikkim)i Atnw.ni, Kbutda 
Hills, Chittajwnisi, Chohi Najrpriiv, Oris«i and tin - Cin-an, Western 
Ghats, Barma, ohiefly in the tnmnter parts oF lYgn Mid TfTutMerim. 

The tree is typically found in moist or evorgrean forest*, often 
occurring nlon<r the banks of Rt ream!* in shady localities, II in nowhero 
abundant, and in many localities is very rare. In tlie Wettem Ghutt 
it oeeiirs in evergreen or semi-evergreen forest* anil along stream* 
ascending to about 4,500 ft. Mr. H. S. Pearson report^ that jt is found 
in small quantities all over the evergreen forests of Kanara, especially 
in Kumta anil An kola, up to 1,501* feet, the top of the Ghxi's. In 
Bel gaum it is reported scarco. Mr. W. A. Talbot states that the tree if 
very scarce in the Centra! Circle, Bombay. In the MailtM PteniJeneg 



* Rata is the name given (o muij (jtfeie* of tr«» with i«I wood, wliitsh ji»re 
bolanicully nutldng in common. 



t CAiutm wood. 

it is rare. Jn tho South Kannra District Mr. B. H. Barlow-Poole reports 
it to be scattered all over the district except at tho Ghats. In Ganjara 
it in reported to bo ho scarce, us to lie practically non-existent. Elsewhere 
it is either extremely rare or is not found at all. 

In Bengal the tree is found in several Forest Divisions, but is nowhere 
common. In Eastern Bcnqal and dswiu. it is found in the Kamrup, 
Cachar, Darramr, Nowgong. Sibaa.gaTj Lakhimpur, Goalpara, Garo Hills 
and Chittagong Division*. It occurs in damp localities and evergreen 
forests of the plains and lower hills up to about 2,000 feet. It is rare in 
most Divisions, but fairly common, avoiding to Mr. E. M. Coventry, in 
Darrang. In Chittngong Mr. Tloinig states that it is found in Cox's 
Bazar .Sub-division and eastward into the hill tracts at 20 — 500 feet 
elevation, in mixed evergreen high forest, commencing from the hi^h land 
behind the mangrove swamps. Jn Kamrup Division Mr. D. P. Copeland 
reports < hat it occurs oil dump aspects at the foot of the Khasi Hills, 
especially on the lower bill slopes of the Myang Hill Reserve and 
Bardwar Reserve in evergreen forest up to an elevation of .">l)0 feet. In 
the preliminary working-plan report Cor the Sal forests of Kamrup 
Division, on the south bank of the Brahmaputra. Mr. Copeland states 
that the tree forms part of tho slock uf evergreen forests and bamboos, in 
which Sal is absent ; in these.- fores Is are to he found the sites of old 
J/iums, * which can be easily distinguished from the surrounding- forest. 
The crop includes l)rndrocalaiuu.$ Jlami 'o'ii/, TcinusfackytiiR JJutiaaa,. 
H gilt a ferrta, Firm elaxlicu, Baccaurea sapida, Frio'botri/a up., Lieuah/ 
pcitala, Afactiravr/a spp., Nnckilux gpp., Eutjciiin formosa, /'". cfrswftj, 
canes, etc. It is sometimes planted by the villagers in Assam for the 
sake of its fruit. 

In Svfwa the tree is found in moist and evergreen forests, and on 
banks of streams, in Pegu and Tenasserim. In the lower mixed forests 
it is associated with hitlema pcnlui/pia, Sdilnchcrn Irijutjo, Anotjehms 
acuminata, Lanerttnvmia Flos-Regiua, L, tome atom, .Diospt/ros 
chrctioidet, Albiztia odorafttxima, A. proccra, Cureya arbntea, Dlplero- 
carptts alalia, etc. Its distribution in Upper Burma, where Brandis 
states that it is found, has not been ascertained. The forest Divisions in 
which it is reported to occur are Pegu, Rangoon, Tharrawaddy (chiefly in 
tho south of the district), Bassein (low-lying bills and plains forests on 



• Shifting cultivation. 



OAHALLU WOOD. 3 

both sides of Am Yomss), Thuyctmyo (moist parts of the East Yomi, 
Satsuu'ii and Tindaw Reserves), Toungoo, Shwtgyia, Thamigyiu, 
W. Sahveen, Ataran, ami South Tenasserim. Kurs, in hia Preliminary 
Report; mentions that it in fre ptent in Pegu ami Tenasserini up to M'OO 
feet on metam orphic ro <-ks, sandstoae and permeable lnWriU", in evergreen 
tropica] and upper mixtd fotests. Although loialty common in uuitahlo 
localities, it is nowhere very abundant. 

il. Description of Tree. 

Carallia intcgeniiiia is a. mudcrah' Bized to large hand-rame ever- 
green tree, with foliagv of shiny tiiifk elliptic leaves, and characierivUcally 
opposite branrhlets. The hark is about i" to ," thick, the outer 
dead bark being eorky and of n dark grey to ninkiuli Colour, mid the inner 
living hark pale greenish-yellow or pinkish vvhcii Eresh-eut, turning 
orange-brown on exposure ; on the inner Kurfaei" of the eortex the endl 
of the numerous broad medullary rtti - an* conspicuous us vertirul streaks. 
Tlje.se cnd.s of the niediiUjiry raya art' alw v«ti rui»N>>ic.>uoti* as Fortiea] 
streaks on 1 lie out<T surface of tie' sapuood when the nark if stripped 
olT. The tree often produces ai'rial runts, shnu in"; it s connection with 
the mangroves, it produces i-oppiee-shtKiti and rout-Stickers ruulily, 
and although it is si'iisiti\e to front il boa good pwvon of recovery, 
As a rule natural reproduction is reported to he good whoro the tree 
occurs, but possibly the reproduction may consist partly of rOQt*»aokei* 
Artificial reproduction by seed is carried out on a small Heal- in Assam 
by villagers, uho cultivate the tree for the mhe of its frait. Mr. K. M. 
Coventry slates that villagers in Darnuig Division havq wji-L-ewfully 
tried reproducing it by planting root-SUcKLTs, 

In Burma the tree ordinan'N grows to a height of 50— 80 feet with 
a girth of G or 7 feet, and a clear hole of 40— 3U feet, Logs of 50— CO 
cubic feet can he obtained. la A -.mm it i* a« large or nearly M large, 
but In Bombay and Madras it reach. ■„ a height, of only about, 40 feet, with 
a o-irth of 4 feet (exceptionally (i foe!) and a clear hole of 80 feet. 

4. Description of Tree. 
Grain, colour, etc. — Suptcood large, pink or light rliortmit-brawn, 
often with a yellow tinge. I/r,/,-frooil red or elu-ntimt- brown . Tho wood 
is hard and bKWtif uDy grained, the large medullary raye, when the wood 



CABAJXIA WOOD. 



is cut in a radial direction, producing a very handsome silver-strain like 
that of a good quartered oak, which the wood much resembles. The large 
pores arc often filled with a resinous substance, this being particularly 
noticeable in. the sapwood when the tree is freshly felled. The wood 
seasons well and does not warp, but is sometime* apt to crack, during 
scot-oning, along the medullary rays. As it should always be cut in that 
direction, however, to show the silver-grain, this is not always a serious 
objection. 

A sample sent to a furniture-manufacturer in ]ndia was much 
admired, and was reported to be very easy to work and well adapted for 
ornamental furniture. 

Weight. — The weight per cubic foot of Masoned wood has been deter- 
mined with regard to the following specimens :-- 



Nil. in lli'hni Don 
ctplkctlira. 


Wiit'Licfi rvci'lved. 


Weight \u Ibu, \*?t 
cabfc fool (torn .■ I 


BOS 


Burma (1SC7) 




47 


7.1.') 


S. Kftiiara (Olici'vy) .... 




4,2 


810 


liiinua [15. JiU'bfnt iop) 




51 


4489 


Ru Niidi, Duhrn Dun (,1 . S. Gflrnbk') . 




'IS 


4608 






42 


5284 


Rangoon Division, Burma (A. Rodger) 




■16 


521(1 


Re Nadi, Mini Dan (R. S. Troiii.) . 




42 




Average 




45 



These specimens all contain sapwood as well a? heartwood. A cylinder 
of green wood cut in I'.MIS weighed 69 ~ lbs. per cubic foot, and the 
sapwood and heartwood cut from the same log and weighed separately, 
sealed GS'Ci and 7Jl'o lbs. per cubic foot respectively. After seasoning 
the above the pieces each weighed -Aii lbs. per cubic foot. Specimen 
No. SS'ol above was eut from this log. 

Strength. — The following are the results of tests carried out by 
Professor W. C. Uuwin in 1809 hu<1 Professor W. H. Everett in 190S, 



I'uwiu. 


E™tett. 


(Ms 


o-rn 


2 i'i7n 


4-07 


183 


61 


6»U'3 


636 


801 


034 



C.UtALl.U WOU1I, J 

the former with Ceyloo wood ami the latter with Burmese wood bom 

Rangoon Division : — 

Kot-iafanci- to shearing along the libra* (toot 

1 er «q. in.) ...... 

Crumbing strength along (he yrnin (tons per 

■$. in.) 

Bending (trautvvna) itreftgtu (toos p« aq. in.) 
Stiffness, from Lending tats. K, (Iod« por 

eq. in.) ....... 

Corresponding P * 

Ofcliei- values of 1', from experiments, are ?'J7 (Honson), li.'iti 
(Skinner), and 700 (Bnui'clill.m). 

Durability.— Caralliajwootl is -aid to In- only fa ; rh durable, am! 
not to last, well if exposed to 1 1 k- weaUe-r or in contract with the ground. 
For indoor work, however, it. is <|iii!.' mutable, Mr. H, S, I'eiirwoii 
reports that a log which had lain oath'- ground for two years in N'orth 
Kanara was not found to lie attark»'J by iiis'-c(s, ji- 1( l was still in h. nouud 
condil ion. 

Herbert Stone's Description,— -A wnplv of Camilla wood from 
Burma was son! to England in I : > i > S to Mr. IIitIhtI Stone, who him 
kmdlv i'avoui'od me with the following report on it: — 

"This is an attract i\o wood, strongly ifuembliog European Oak 
in eolour and figure. Fee pePHOim would tw able to di«tin}?UUlh il from 
that wood whim ipiartered. Unfortunately i(, is extremely brittle and 
hence unsuitable for inanv purposes, beside., being very tr<>ul>I<'huim to 
work. Not that it is hard lo work, on t he contrary, il i«;iws mid plain* 

easily; but the dilKculty of planing t o a level -urt'ji<-«-, ihrough pi h 

ripping; out, is great , and one can never It'll wlifll OUf'n work il done. 
This applies to (lie radial seelioli more pui I icularlv, a* il is the ' nilvor- 
grain ' which chips. hi turning, Ilia Battle difficulty is* ui'twilh; the 
' silver-grain ' flakes off here and (here. The iipoa'mon is of better 
ijiialitv in point of colour and figure Ihtia samples which I have m.va 
from Ceylon and Queensland, hut fhw all share the same defect of 
britflenSBB. It does not coma up to expectation when paliilied, uqIcm 
some colour he added, as the pale ' silver-grain ' becomes in visible, 

W x I 

* F, representing the tian»v(r»(j btrvogtli, is obtained from the fnrmnla l's ti k rw" 

wberu W is the breaking load, L tin.- length of tU« bar belw«n mpporli, iu feet, 
and B and D, its breadth and de|>tb in inchea. 






CA1ULLU WOdD. 



except when viewed in certain directions, and the red pores, so effective 
in the freshly planed wood, assume a dull appearance. Having regard 
to its mechanical qualities, it is an inferior wood. As a furniture wood 
it cannot compete with European Wainscot Oak. I suspect its 
durability, Watt notwithstanding-, and I cannot understand Beddome's 
statement that it is 'tough ' and ' brittle' as it can scarcely be both." 



5. System of Working 1 , ami Outturn. 

Carallia has not been specially worked in any of the localities in 
which it occurs, although it is cut in unregulated and selection fellings 
in common, with oilier miscellaneous species. Li South Kanara the tree 
is found in forest worked under coppice with standards, but it is not 
left as a standard. There has never been any regular market for t lie 
timber, the tree not being sufficiently plentiful. The ehief source of 
future supply is Burma, where possibly some 500 logs could be obtained 
per annum, chiefly from the Tomigoo, Tharrawaddy, Bassein, Rangoon, 
Pegu, Ataran and South Tenasserim Divisions. A limited supply could 
be obtained from the Darrang, Nowgong, Cachar and Lalchimpur 
Divisions of Assam, and possibly also from Chiftagong, Kamrup, and 
Sibsagar Divisions. In Bombay and Madras the supply is extremely 
limited, though a small quantity might be obtained from North Kauara 
Division in Bombay. 

o. Prices. 

The following statement gives the duty rates aud approximate prices 
of the wood in various localities : — 



1 



Locality. 



Ooveromeot duty. 



Local market 
price. 



Approximate rate at which 
the timber could be extracted, 



Easter:i Bengal 
and Astam. 



Kauirup Division j R2 per trco 
Cacbnr „ 



Darrang 



fi.2 per tree 



B.l-4-ft per cubic foot, con- 
vened, lit Gaubnti. 



10 amine per fil-0-0 per cubic foot, con- 
ditio foot in I verted, at Silcbar. 
tho round. 

1 12 annas per cutiio foot, at 
Tczpur steamer ghat. 



CA1ULT.TA WOOD. 



Locality. 



Eastern Bengal 

and 
Assam— contd, 

Nowgong Division 

Sibsngar „ 

Lakh'vmpnr ,, 

Burma. 

Toungoo Division 



Government duty. 



Local markot 
price. 



Approximate rate at which 
the timber could be extracted. 



R2 per tree 

5 annas per tree 



6 annas per cnbio 
foot. 



Ataran 



Tbaungyin 



South Tenasaerim 
Division. 

Tlia rrawaddy 
Division. 



Rl-8-0 per log 
4' fi" and over, 
12 annas pur 
log 3' to 4' C". 

Ditto 



Ditto 



Logs <t' 0" and 
over in girth, 
Rl-8-0 each. 
Lops 8' to 4'-(i" 
in girth 12 an- 
nas each. 



Not loss than Rl-8-0 per 
cubic foot, at Jamguri or 
Barpathar railway Ktations. 

R.l-4-0 per oubic foot at 
Dibrogarh. Rl-8-0 to 
Rl-12-0 per cubic foot 
at Calcutta or Oliiilagong 
(converted timber). 



R9 per log or (1) At NyaungbintbaR7 per 
tun. log (about lb'xG' girtb). 

At Pyii R7 |ier log. At 
Oktwin R7-8-0 per log. 
In addition to tfio above 
cost, there ia a royalty of 
Rl-8-0 per log of M fl" 
and over, and 12 annas per 
log 3' to H B" in ^irth. 
(2) Logs can be delivered at 
Rangoon (not I'. o. b.) from 
Pyu at an pslra D >M of R4 
per ton. 



Extraction 
jMmdmein 



tlic ronnd 



. estimated to 
cost K9 per ton of 60 cubic, 
feet. 



R15 to R20 per 
ton in the 

'round. R30 to 
R40 per ton, 
converted. 



ft30 per ton (converted) at 
Letpndan and TIiodzc rail- 
way station I. 



CAR ALL! A WOOD. 



Loonlity. 



Burma — contd. 



Rangoon 



BiMsid 



Bombay. 
\V. D. Kannm 



N. D. K»nura 



Madras. 
S. Carnira . 



Government dory, 



Local market Approximate rate at which 

price, the timber could be extracted. 



Logs 4,' 0" and 
over in girth, 
Hi -8-0 each. 
LogB 8' to 1' 0" 
in girth, 12 an- 
nas each. 



Ditto 



lftl-fi-0 per 

khandy of 121, 
cubic feet. 



Oitl. 



R5 per log. R30 R5 per locr, or 1130 per Ion, 
per ton, con- converted, at Bassein station 
verted. i or port. 



Extraction very difficult and 
costly. Chief supply from 
the ti above-ghat villages 
round MuRki. 



R2i per ton of 50 cubic feel; 
at Tavnrgatti, Southern 
Mahratta Railway. "R28 per 
Ion of 60 cubic feet at 
Kodibng (Kiirwar). 



8 annaa per oubic foot on tbo 
sea coast. Loading into 
country craft would be 
extra. 



7. Uses of tho AYood. 

The wood is used for house-building (planking and house posts), 
furniture, rice-pounders (Burma), agricultural implements (Madras), and 
handles- of spears- and ' dahs ' (Burma) : it would bo suiinlde for panel- 
ling, pietnre-frawrs, and other ornamental work if cut on a radial section 
t,o show the silver-grain. It has been tried and found very suitable for 
bmsh-baoks. 



C/tRAI.UA WOOD. 9 

Mr. B. H. Barlow- Poole says, with regard to the u.ge of this wood in 
the Madras Presidency, thai- the people are afraid to tjsc it owirif to the 
superstition that it attracts fire, and that a building in the construction 
of which it has been used will one day cateh fire; tc> obviate this they 
scorch it before use. 

S. Minor Products. 

The Burmese use the roots for medicinal purposes (].<\ J. liranth- 
waite), and the bark as medicine in dental and stomachic ailments. In 
Assam the fruit i6 eaten, and the, pulp, dried in tlu< sun, is used as a 
medicine in eases of dysentery and chronic malarial fever (D. V. Copeland 
and E. M. Coventry). In Bombay (Kanara) an oil is extraeled from tlio 
seed and is mixed with or used as a substitute for ghee (U. E. Marjori- 
banks) and is also used on a small scale for lighting pu.rpu.--os (It. S. fear- 
sou) . 



i 



KUf'MHKItSDSNT GOVEENMENT POINTING, INDIA 
8, HASTINGS 9TBEET 



Sot**l" cJawp&iVt 0£a 12 



ootejt (Sconomit (Seties 9Io. 



PETWUN OR TRINCOMALI WOOD 



( BERRY A AMMONILU, Roxb. ) 



i:y 



R. S. TROUP, P.C.B., 

Itnpirlit I ore 1.I licoaamiit to She Qovcraacnl si lidli 





CALCUTTA 

SUPERINTENDENT GOVERNMENT PR1NTINU, INDIA 

igio 



C CWtM4 O^OM* M 




FOREST PAMPHLET SERIES. 




Pomjililrt lfc.1, dtumitfiy Strltt No. ;.— Note or. Utilization of Khalr Forest* by 

Mr. t'onm Singh, F.CJ« etc.. Imperial Voreit ChtmUt. 
Fampilst So. 8, Tortti Zaotogg Strict So. I.— The Attack of Bark Boring Beetle In the 

Coniferous Forests In the Hlmls Catchment Area >iy Mr. E. P. Slabbing, F.L.9., 

H!,8., Imperial Koreet Zonlogiit. 
famphht No. S, Working Plm Seritt No t — Glossary or Forest Teehnlcaj Term* by 

Mr. A. M. F. Cecria, M.V.O., F.Z.S., I.F.8., Imperial Sufwrintoudxat, Working Plant. 
rmmpiM No. 4, Fortti BeoHamy Srritt No. /.— Note on Lac awl Lac CnlUration by- 
Mr. D. N. Ai-wia, Bit™ AaiisMnfc Conntrrafcor of Forests, C. ?. 
l'ampM*t No. 5, NflritmHurr Aries No. 1.— Notes oa Sal In Bengal by Mr. A. L. 

Itrlntire, I.F.S., Ctmwrvnt/ir of Furests, Bengal. 
Pampklut So. 8, Sjltinlturt Series No. 8.— Note on Forest Reserration in the Interest of 

an T nilanirrrna Water Supply In Burma by Mr. A. Bodgw, I.F.S., Depqty Cooterretor 

of Fonxte, Burma. 
Pamphlet No. 7, Fortti Economy Strut Na. 8.~ Note oa Andaman* Marble (Food or 

Zebra Wood by Mr. K, S. Troop, F.C.H., Imperial Foreit Economist. 
Pamyhtet No. ft. Working Plan .Strirt So. 3. — Note On the Collection of Statistical Bala 

relating to the Principal Indian Species by Mr. A. M. F. Ceoeie, Imperial Superinten- 
dent of Fowl Working Plene. 
Pamphlet No. 9, Working Plan Strict No. S. -Tables showing; the Progress made In 

Working Plans by .Mr. A. M. F. Ceeeia, M.V.O., F.Z.3., I.F.S., Imperial Superintendent 

of Forrat Working Plane. 
Famphitt No. 10, Forttl lieonomg Serf** No. 8. — Note on Burmese Leu Wood (Lagers- 

trirmla tomenloia), by Mr. It. 8. Troup, F.C.H., Imperial Foriet Economist. 
Pamphltt So. 11, Fnrttt Eeonumi/ Stritt So. 4 — Koto on Carallln Wood (Cnrallla 

Integerime), by Mr. K. S, Troup, F.C.H., Imperial Forest Economist. 





PETWUN OR TRINCOMALI WOOD 



(BERRYA AMMONILLA, Roxb.) 



HY 

R. S. TROUP, F.C.H., 

Imperial Forest Economist to the Government of India 




CALCUTTA 
SUPERINTENDENT GOVERNMENT PRINTING. INDIA 
IQIO 



PETWUN OR TR1NCOMAL1 WOOD. 

Berryu Aiv.moniUa, Roxb.—- (Syn. II. mo! I in, Wall.). Natural order 
Tiliafiaoa. 

Vernacular. — Pelwnn, Burmese; Chavatnltilai, thfritikanamallay, 
kamlamaram, Tamil. 

1. Distribution and Habitat. 

Throughout Burma, in suitable localises. Also found in Ceylon, 
Little Cnco Island (Brain). " Said to bo found in Southern India, but 
wild trees have not been recorded. Often pluntivl an a forest tree or for 
ornament" (Gamble). " Malabar, Trava>ie«»*e" (Unvmlis). 

In Burma the tree is found from the Upper. Cbindwin and KhUui 
Forest Divisions on the north (.0 the Afcarun Division (Amhorit 
District) on the south; information jjivon in this prmiphlet refjardinj; 
the tree refers only to Burma, except where otherwise. elated. It s'w 
found fairly generally scattered in upper mixed deciduous forests, chiefly 
of the drier type, tssoci.itpd with Teak, Trrwiunlia ptrifnlia, 7 1 . tomeii' 
torn, Balhcrgia ctdtrala, Xt/lia dtlalriform'*, and other species- It 
occurs also to some extent in Induing forest and tcmi-Imlainf, associated 
with Dijilerocarpus taberettlatut, Slmrea olilnta, and Pmiacn-e tuavit. 
It is also found in lower mixed deciduous forests of Hie plains, associated 
with Teak, T'onih/an, {Trrmhuilia, inmcuiosa}, Pfinan {Lagertlrama 
Flos-Reginw), Hnaw {ldt*a eordifoiia), Binga [Btlfhegyne rfirertifc/lite), 
Ttinkala {Aflina teaiUfolia), ThiUeiu, {TsrminaUa bclirica), J^'ah 
(Odina Woi(ier), Dwam (JSVcafciM CauduUei), Zinli/nn (J)illenia pen- 
tagon a), etc. 

Enumerations made in 1903-1001 by the writer in the Satp6k, Sittwin 
and Thindawyo Ileserra of the Tharrawaddy Division in mixed decidu- 
ous plains forest of this type over an area, ol about 20 square miles showed 
the number of Petwun trees & feet in girth and over per 100 acres to be 



PI.TWON Oil TE'XCOMALT WOOD. 



09 in Satp6k, 4 in 8itkwin, and 57 in Thindawyo. The eoil in these 
reserves, which are situated on flat country, consists of a rich loam, with 
occasional pans of clay on which tree growth is poorer tban elsewhere. 
Mr. Walsh nod's having observed the tree in dense evergreen forest. 



2. Description of Tree. 

The Potwun is a large tree with smooth pale thin hark. It commonly 
giws to a height of 00— sli feet and a irirth of 6 feet. Logs 1 8 to 20 
feet in length and '1 feet inches in ^irth can ordinarily be obtained. 
The proportion of heariwiod is about £ of the whole log in average sized 
mature timber. 

Nnlnral reproduction is reported to he good in most localities, and 
poor in others. Mr. "Walsh states that in the Ruby Mines the tree has 
great difficulty in establishing itself, seedlings, or possibly root suckers, 
being plentiful round each tree but saplings and poles very scarce. In 
tho Satpok Teserve, Tharrawaddy Division, I have noticed very good 
young growth of lYfwvjn, the saplings appearing 1 to establish themselves 
without difficulty ; here, however, a good deal of felling has been carried 
out in the past, and the young grovv 1,1) has no doubt benefited by the 
opening of the canopy. 



.'I, Description and Properties of Wood. 

Grain, colour, etc — Snpwood light yellowish brown, about one inch 
broad. Ileartwood orange-red to dark red or reddish brown, very hard, 
close even und straight grained, with a lustrous surface and a " eoapy " 
feel which lasts a long time after the wood is eat. 

The pores arc clearly visible to the naked eye. The medullary rays 
are hardly visible without a lens en a transverse Bection, but on a longi- 
tudinal radial section they are clearly visible to (he naked eye. The wood 
turns very well, planes to an extremely smooth surface, and polishes 
beautifully, but is difficult to saw. It splits easily and with a straight 
surface, especially in a tangential direction. 

Weight. — The weight per cubic foot of seasoned heurtwood has been 
determined with regard to the following specimens :— 



i'KTWVX UK I'lllKCOMALl WO'D. 



No. in Drhm Dun 
collection. 


Wlxiief rtalTti 


twlile fool. 
1 


B. 288 


Burma ..... 


, 




« 


B. 327 


Burma ..... 


. 




fil 


B. 1,420 


ThttvrFiHudily .... 


i 




eg 


B. 1,452 


Tiome ..... 


. 




65 


B. 2,722 


Tfivoy ..... 






at 


B. 3,118 


Burma ..... 


■ 




G3 


B. 5,275 


I'yinraann, Uppi' Bur u:t, fC. K.Siiiub 


A 
} 




59 


B. 5,270 


Ruby Minos, Uepor liurma, (11. 1.. 1'. 


w 


i»h) 


tiO 


B. 5,285 


DUlo ditto 






Co 




A\ KlliOK 


. 


CI 



';ive tl le following 1 results : — 

SBO'lt lb*. p<<r s.]. iu. 

B442 tum. 

fi'S'.W „ 

780' 7 „ ,i 



Strength. — Professor Unwin's experiments for the Imperial latli- 
tute, Loudon, in 1899 with Ceylon wuo'l 

Resistance to shearing along the fibres 
Crushing BlrosS .... 
Coefficient of transverse f-trengtb 
Coolliciont of c-lu.-t icily 

The value of P.* has been determined at different times by various 
persons, and varies from 022 to ],02S iu recorded tehts. Tho wuud, as 
will appear from the above figures, puegesfcee great Htrmiyih uud elasti- 
city. 

Seasoning power. — The wood aeasims well, but it is advisable to 
season it iu the log, to prevent tie formation of a mull radial cracki, which 
are apt to form iE tho wood is converted gtem. 

Durability Pefcwun wood is durable, and lasts ivell on the ground 

and iu contact with water. Gamble repu-tfl that a specimen which had 
lain in Calcutta for jO years was perfectly sound at the end of that time. 
The wood is reported not to be proof against teredo attacks in salt water. 

\V X lj 

*P, representing the (ranivarso strength, ii obtained from tho f uracil* P.= jj-J'u u 

where W is the breaking fowl in lbs., L tlsc- length of th» bar between mpi'orts, in feet, 
and B and D ita breadth and depth in innbes. 



■i PETW'CW OTl iai.NCOMAl.1 WOOD. 

Herbert Stone's description. — Herbert Stone in Lis "Timbers of 
Commwcii "* remarks us follows regarding this timber : — 

" "Weight 4S to 65 lbs. per cubic foot. Hardness grade 3, very 
hard, compare Blackthorn. Smell' and taste none. Burns with 
a lively crackling (lame: embers glow in still air: ash pure 
white. Solution wi(h watet or alcohol colourless. Grain 
very fine, dense and even. Surface lustrous, the brightness 
being due t<> the ground tissue and the shining 1 drops : feels 
slightly damp even when really dry : does not soil easily. 
Fissile, works very bweotly, finishes well, is of good appear- 
ance, splits easily, straight and cleanly. I have not heard of 
this wood bsing mid in England, hut it is one that deserves 
attention from its many excellent qualities. " 



4. System of Working. 

Pofcwun, where worked for trade purposes, w extracted from nnclasscd 
foraete under oOTBr of prepaid licen-'cs, and in the few eases where it is 
felled in reserves it is previously mark el under the selection system. 
The timber, however, can hardly be said to have been worked with any 
regularity during 1he pant. For domestic purposes it may be extracted 
without a license in unclassed forests. Extraction is carried out by 
dragging, carting, and rafting with the aid of bamboos. The construc- 
tion of. fore.-t roads or other means of transport would facilitate extraction. 



5. Outturn. 

Figures for past outturn are not available, as Petwun timber is not 
separately cla'-sified. The future possible outturn also cannot be esti- 
mated with any decree of accuracy owing to the absence of enumerations 
and to the fact that the possible outturn will depend greatly on the 
extent to which roadmaking is carried out in future. The possible 
annual outturn Cor Burma will probably not exceed 1,5(J0 tous per annum 
under existing conditions. 

*Thr Timhtrt of Cemmrrr? anil their Jtlrnlificolitm, by Herbert SU>u<>, F.L.8., F.S.C.I., 
London, W. Rider & Son. Limited, 131, Alderagate :*trc«(, E.C., 180-1, Jingo 16. 



tETWUN Oa TRlKCOMALt KOOD. ' 

8. Prices. 

The following statement gives the duty rates and Approximate 
prices of Petwun timber in various localities : — 



FoTOgt 

Division. 



Government, duty. |Loo»l m&rUetrate. 



Apprnsiomre rite st which 
timber conld be 

c\tr i' I. 



Myittha . Full sized log* HI pooh. x H6 par ton (ronnd), S7 to US por ton (round) at Alon 



Undersized lo<;8 B annas 
each. 

Posts RIO por 100. 

Poles 8 armas per 
I 100. 

I 
I 



Mandalay . : S5 per ton 



KIT t" MS por ion (round) at 
Eimguon (inoluitive of duty). 



H60 por ton (con- 
TOrted). 



Pyinr 



Ruby JlinM 



Duty 1 rupee por log of About HfiO per 
i' 0'' girth and over, ton fur \ inch 

plunks. 

8 annas undor that 
girth. 



Double tho nbovo rate 
for converted timber. 
For trees felled in 
reserved forests & 
small foiling fee would 
bo charged. 



Logs -V 8" and over ii> 
(firth, ono rupoo each . 

Lofn '.',' to 4' E" in girth, 
8 annus each. 

Posts 1' to 3' in girth, 
i annas each. 

Poles, 1 rupee por hun- 
dred. 



RIO per 

R40 por 
Terted) 



log lS-xl'6",') ... , 
f At local 

H ton (oon-f "!'«» 

Rio por log 18' x 4? C'l 

ft5t> por ton (en- VAt Ran- 
Torlod) (inuluwvo J goon, 
of duty). J 



(1) At TbniruHi, Ela, Pyinmana 

or Kyidtiunsignn stations on 
tho Burma Hallway i 

fn round, US por-v 

ton. /N.d in- 

> finding 
Converted R3D per \ duty. 

ton. J 

(2) At Bvugoon station : 

In ronnd, R20 per~| 

ton. I Not Irj- 

V (rinding 
Converted, H40 per I duty. 

ton. J 



FBTWU.V OH TRlNCOMAlI WOOB. 

0. Prices — continued. 



Foreit 
Division. 



Tharra»addy 



Zigon 



Government duty. 



Log" 4' C and over in 
girth, ttl-8-0 oacli. 

LnftK 3' to 4' c>' in girth. 
12 annan each. 

Log* 4' (T and over in 
girth, KI-K-fl e»e]i. 

Logs 8' to 4' C" in girth, 
3- ann.jh fitch. 



Local market rate. 



Approximate rate at which 

timber couid ho 

extra.otod. 



Promo 



Diftr 



R20 per ton in ' KSO par ton (converted) at Let- 



lie round. 

StO per ton con- 
verted. 



jiniian, Thonxe and. 
lln iK j> ntativn«. 



Minhla 



I?50 (o H55 per 100 plunks 18' * 6" 
X J'" nnd In' « 8' :< {" at Nattnlin, 
Zigun, and G'yobingauk Uailway 

Stations. 

IU8 to H20 por ton in the ronnd 
(it tho same places. 

To Bungoon railway freights are 
as iollcWB: — 



From. 



Natlalin 

Zigoc . 
Gyobingauk 
Okpo . 



of 

converted 

timber. 



jier ton 
in 

round. 



* a. Ji. 
3 14 
3 10 
3 C G 
3 3 



A 1 a i<, 

3 7 9 

3 4 

3 1 

2 13 9 



Local charges pmch or cart hire 
and loading on the truck at M'2 
per ton for round logs and for 
converted timber nt Hl-8-0 per 
ton. Tho viilao at Bangoon will 
he the pri^o per ton of converted 
timber or ronud log aw men- 
tioned below }'/«* local charges 
and railway freight. 

From J150 to H5.3 per 100 planks. 
Doty Bl-8-0 per Du and HO-12-0 
perYat. JtlB to H20 per ton for 
timber in the roand. 



R20 per ton in the round at 
l'n mu. 

RE(> per ton in tho round at 
Kangoon. 



petwon on tiuncomali wood. 
6. Prices — concluded. 



Forest 
I'meion. 



Km i fin 



Tonngu 



rharuifryin 



Ataran . 



Government duly. Local market rate. 

I 



Log»3' t,:>4' (>" in girth, About Rfi-8 per 

R 1-8-0 iMch. lup i' 6" and 

Lcips 3' to i'ti* in girth, over in girth. 

1* annua each. 



Approximate rate at which 

timber could he 

extracted. 



RS-S-0 per fall-Kind log »t 
HaBiein Port or Biulir iy Station. 

RJW jut fontcOUTOrliiil) nt Bu-.B.-in 
Rail nay SUtiun. 

1(05 per t»n at Bassoio Port. 



1ob» i' 6" an,l ovor in K7 to R12 per At Vyunugohidauk, R8-10 per log 

B irth Hl-R-n oafh. taa for loga 4 ' t'f/'ljySi'. 

G' and ovor in 
L,"g« 3' tol'6 irirth 12 girth. 

anna* each I 



At Sr.vohla, H10-1O porJiig4'6' ; by 



Posts V to 3' in girth I Hllo.iolj forhou»t«- At Swa, RIO-10 por log *' 0' by 
unaitp each. pontn about -'3'' 110'. 

in girtli nud IS' 
to 20 iu length, At YoiUbIip, R7-0-0 'par log i' 6* 

by 20'. 

(8) At Hiiri'ojn (not /. c. b.) 
R4-S-0 por ton m-iro thin 

above priOOH. 



J.iiRB L' C" nnil ovor in 
girth Kl-S-0 each. 

I.ov'fl 8 t.i 4' C girth, 
12 annus each. 

Ports 1 to 3' in girth — 
4 uctnaa tnich. 



Ditto 



EttKt of Hi" D-iirna HilK wlioro 
tho trn:- in miint plentiful. 
OKtrnotinii in too difficult. Wont 
Of the Dnwun tlm on*t of ustrac- 
tion to Muulini'in i- cKllimftf -<1 
at 1)9 pur ton in the round. 



7. I'ses of the AVood. 

Petwun is used in Burma f«r houso-huilding (posts, beam*, wantlings, 
flooring, etc.) sampans, oars, ploughs, harrows and other agricultural 
implement, axe-handles, hodie«, shafts, a^le-i and yokes of carts, naves, 
spokes and felloes, of wheels, spear handle-, gnnstoekfl, and Karen bows. 
In Madras it is used for masula surf boats and for earriagj-building. 
The Ordnance Depart me it, u-es it for draught-poles, sponge-staves, and 
hand-spikes. 

Owin£ to its toughness, elasticity and straight grain Petwun wood is 
recommended for carriage shafts and other purposes re. paring these 



8 PBTWf/N OB. THINCOMALI WOOD. 

properties. It would probably be suitable also for paving blocks, though 
its smoothness aiight possibly be against it as forming too slippery a 
surface. It might be tried for ousk staves, though its weight may be 
flfrahifst it. 

The Superintendent of Insoin Jail states : "I consider it a most suit- 
able wood for making unaf'tn and wheels of carriages as well as for elegant 
furniture." 

A sample of the wocd wa6 recently sent to a well-known fishing-rod 
manufacturer in Loudon for trial in the manufacture of fishing -rods, but 
was unfavourably reported on. 

8, Minor Products. 

The bast fibre is sometimes used for cordage, but the quality is not 
very good. 



C1LCOTT* : F8INTSU BY SUPUT. GOVT. MINTIKO, IN'IUA, 8. HitSttKOS srqjET. 




Lll^tlty 

Jfunjkir 




/a 

3 If ■ 8" -OS 



THE " BEE-HOLE " BORER OF TEAK 

IN BURMA. 



BY 



E. P. STEBBING, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 





CALCUTTA i 

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTINQ, INDIA. 

19O0. 



Note on the Bee.Hole Borer of Teak in Burma. 



The accompanying throe plates illustrating this note, together with 
their descriptions, arc sent for favour of binding up with the note. 



E. P. STUBBING. 



The 20th May r<)o6. 



PLATE I. 



Fig. aa\ — Dorsal and side view of larva (caterpillar). 

Fig. bb'. — Dorsal and side view of pupa (chrysalis). 

Fig. c. — Moth.' 

Fig. d. — Section from lower part of a green standing teak tree showing a pro- 
truding pupal case in situ from which the moth has recently escaped (}th natural 
size). ' 



NoTF.— Pigs. a»\ bb' and c arc natural size. 



STEBBIHG— THE "BEE-HOLE" BARER OF TEAK 



PUTE I. INDWN FORESTER mt, m. 1BOS. 




THE "BEE-HOLE" BORER OF TEAK. 



r.-H. 4 CiiUro. Dt-i-t., 1. CvlUvc. Boorlm. 



PLATE 



Tortioii of a stem of a standing: green tc.uk tree. The upper bark has been 
removed to :.how the irregular chamber made in the cambium and sap wood by tnr: 
larva of the bee-hole borer of teak. 



STE8BIHG. THE "BEE-HOLE" B01EB Of T£»K, 



PLATE II. INDIAN FORESTER XXXI. APP. 1905. 




I ' , '1. 

i . . » i 

I i M ■ . 






PLATE 111. 



Section through a portion of a -IrnMH 1 ' a standing ijivt-u teak tree showing the 
gallery made in'lhe wooil with the: pupal ehamlier al il- upper extremity and a pupa 
in situ. Tlv strand ul fibres across the mouth ul uhi galkry is also shown labuut 
J natural size). 



STEBBING.- THE "BEE-HOLE" BORER OF TEAK. PLATE III. INDIAN FORESTER XXKI. APP. 1905. 







A NOTK 



UPON 



THE "BEE-HOLE" BORER OF TEAK 

IN BURMA. 



BY 
E. P. STEBBING, F.L.S., F.Z.S., F.E.S. 




CALCUTTA: 
OFFICE OP THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA. 

1905. 




A NOTli 



UPON 



THE "BEE-HOLE" BORER OF TEAK 
IN BURMA. 

(.DUOMITUS.) 



-t- 



I. — General. 

"CQR some years past Forest Officers and Timber merchants have 
noticed and reported thai teak logs when cut up in the mil] are 
occasionally found to contain holes and elongate tunnels of consider- 
able size and roundish-oval in section, to which the popular name of 
" bee-hole " has been given. This name, so far as [ can ascertain, 
appears to be a "trade" one and, as is often the case with popular 
nomenclature, is unsuitable since the holes have no connection 
whatsoever with bees. All teak timber is not alleeled in this manner, 
the trees in certain forests in different localities suffering more than 
those from others. Timber affected in this way is to be found all 
over Burma, but it is apparent that certain forests are more liable to 
contain " bee-holed " timber than others. For a considerable time 
the origin of these holes has been a mystery. It was attributed for 
the most part to an insect or insects, although various much wider 
surmises as to the cause have been advanced. 

There are no two opinions, however, upon the damage done to the 
timber. Holes of all sizes are to be found right inside the large teak 
squares and greatly reduce the prices obtained for the wood or ruin 
it altogether. For instance " bee-holed " limber is quite useless for 
Admiralty purposes and attention was drawn to their presence in 



3 A NOTE I'PON THE " BF.E-HOLE " BORER OF TEAK IN nURMA. 

the wood in the early days of Forest operations in Tenasserim. In his 
Report on the Teak Forests of Tenasserim Dr. H. Falconer, F.R.S., 
Superintendent of the Botanical Gardens, Calcutta, made the follow- 
ing allusions to this subject as long ago as 1851 : — "The mixture of 
this light dead timber, with unseasoned logs which have been felled 
green and logs flawed with holes and clefts from the Thaungyin, in 
the shipments made to England is generally considered to have beon 
the cause of the bad repute into which the Tenasserim teak has 

fallen at home for shipbuilding The two latter circumstances 

had more to do with the result than the first." " The tree during 
its growth does not seem to suffer much from the ravages of para- 
sitical insects. Captain Tremenheerc mentions that the stem is 
attacked by a beetle in the Thangyin which bores teredo-like holes. 
I observed no marks of such an insect in the Ataran Forests." 

Captain Guthrie, Superintendent of Forests in the Tenasserim 
provinces, wrote in a report dated 20th June 1845, "Of the Thaun- 
gyin teak I may remark that I have seen it growing and thriving in 
every variety of loi ality ; it has generally the advantage of carry- 
ing its girth well to a great height, not tapering quickly; it appears 
to be somewhat liable to small cells, isolated, but which appear in 
sawing up." 

The presence of these " bee-holes " in the wood has resulted in 
two serious drawbacks : — 

(1) Reduction in the amount of timber available for export 
owing to the trees from certain localities having been found to be 
badly "bee-holed." This results in smaller amounts being available 
in the home markets. 

(2) Serious losses to the merchant engaged in extracting the wood. 

Under the latter head I have been supplied with the following 
figures (at Moulmein) : — 



Value of good lountl teak log, 34' x 5' middle girth Free 
from bee -ho lea 
Do. dOn tvifh a Few bee-halei 

Do. i(h with numerous bee-holes . 

Da. do. entirely riddled 

(The log would be cut up and sold a* firewood 



160 o o 

92 8 o 

40 o o 

700 



NOTK TPON THE " FIFE-HOLE " OORKR OF TEAK IN Rl'RMA. 3 

Soon after my arrival in Burma I paid a visit to the Saw Mills 
of Messrs. Steel & Co. in Rangoon, where the manager very kindly 
showed me a number of attacked squares and, in fact, teak material 
of all sorts. An exceptionally badlv riddled square was cut up in 
order that the tunnels might be traced from ihe orifice opening out 
on the outer surface to their extremities in the wood, 

Two points were ascertained : — 

(i) That the tunnel curved up the stem soon after entering and 
ended in a slightly wider chamber at its upper extre- 
mity. Its section was oval-elliptical. 

(ii) That the tunnel did not necessarily open on to the outside 
of the squares. In taking oft slabs with a circular saw 
it became apparent that tunnels both commenced and 
ended within the wood itself. 

From an examination of the tunnel it was at once apparent that, 
although the work of an insect, it was not the work of one of the 
carpenter bees [Xylocopn). These bees usually work in colonies, the 
tunnels being placed closely adjacent and being invariably large 
in section and circular. Nor was it the work of a wood wasp 
(Sirex) ; the grub of the latter tunnels in a very irregular manner in 
the wood, the gallery running at various angles, and, in addition, 
there is always an exit gallery bored straight from the pupal 
chamber to the outside. This reduced the matter to three pro- 
bable groups. Two of beetles, BupresHdm and Cirnmbycidswad 
one of the Hctcrocera or moths (the wood-boring families Cosnda-, 
Arbclidx. etc.). 

From my examination of the tunnels 1 was inclined to think they 
were either Buprestid or Heterocerous. The difficulty, however, was 
that the tunnels, though varying in size, were each individually of 
the same width throughout. In other words, the whole tunnel 
appeared to have been made by the full grown insect ; whether in 
its larval or mature stage had yet to be ascertained, f could find 
no trace of the gradually increasing gallery made by a larva as it 
"tows from its young to its full-grown condition ; nor did there 
appear to be any separate exit gallery. These facts rather led to the 



4 A NOTK UPON THE " 11EF.-HOLE " BORER OF TF.AK IN BURMA. 

assumption that the insect was one of those which spend the whole 
of their grub stage (until full size is attained) feeding beneath the 
bark in the bast and sap wood, only boring into the wood to pupate, 
and this was a point to be evidently kept in view in studying the 
attack in the forest. The fact that the tunnels varied greatly in 
width was not of great importance since the individuals of many 
insects of one and thr same species vary greatly in size, as also do 
the males and females of the same species. 

The second of the above points was of great importance since it 
seemed to indicate that the tree had been attacked whilst alive and 
in a younger stage, the exit hole on the outside of the stem having 
been subsequently covered over by later layers of wood. 



II Points to be studied. 

My examination of the timber in Messrs. .Steel & Co.'s Saw 
Mill enabled me to draw up the following questions which required 
answering from direct observations in the forest: — 

(i) The exact position on the tree and direction of — 

(a) the entrance hole ; 
(l>) the main gallery ; 
(f) the pupal chamber ; 
[d) the exit hole ; 

(2) Where the eggs are laid. 

(3) length of time spent in the larval or grub stage and where 

and how the larva feeds. 

(4) Length of time passed in the pupal or chrysalis stage and 

where this stage is passed. 

(5) At what time of the year the insect quits the tree and how. 
(ii) The nature of the insect, whether wood was]), carpenter bee, 

beetle (buprestid or longicorn) or a boring heterocerous 
(moth) caterpillar. 

(7) Are green standing trees in the forest attacked ? 

(8) Are the trees only attacked after being girdled ? 



A NOl E UPON THE " BEE-HOIK " BOKEK OK I KAK IN BURMA. 5 

(9) Are dead trees attacked by the insect ? 
(10) At what age are the trees attacked ? 

III. — Tharrawaddy Teak plantation Thinnings. 

"Bee-holes'' in teak in the Tharrawaddy Division are said to lie. 
by no means common. We found, howevei, what Mr. 'I roup, the 
Divisional Officer, considered (o be an example of such in an 1S8S 
plantation in the Kariiii Bilin Forest. In the light of sub .\juent 
investigations I am now able to corroborate Mr. Troup. This 
plantation had been thinned last year and the thinned trees we:'' 
lying in the coupe, since the thinnings here are not sold. Whilst 
cutting up and examining one of these trees for Scolytidm^ with one 
or two species of which t fie wood was being riddled, we came upon a 
cavity or tunnel in the stem and traced it up to what appeared to 
have been a pupating chamber ol an insect, situated in the. long axis 
of the tree in the centre of the. heart wood. The lop of the tunnel 
or former exit hole of the pest had three rings of sap wood super- 
imposed above it. It was therefore justifiable to suppose that the 
attack had been made upon the. tree whilst still living, the entrance 
or exit hole having been closed up by the subsequent, growth of the 
tree. 



IV Examination oi Timber from the Mohnyin Reserve in the Kadu Depot, 

Katha Division. 

On my arrival at Kadu in ihe Katha Division, UpjxT Burma, I 
examined a number of teak logs in the Depot and also some stand- 
ing dead girdled trees. The logs had all come from the Mohnyin 
Reserve, the teak trees of which were earning an unenviable 
notoriety owing to tfu number of '' bee-holes '' the timber contained. 
I found that a majority of the logs showed '' bee-holes " on the out- 
side as also sections of them on the cut ends. The holes were 
usually oval-elliptical in shape and appeared to vary greatly in hi'ie. 
Many were badly "weathered," the opening 011 the outside being 



5 A NOTE UPON THE "BEE-HOLE" BUKEK Ofr TliAK IN BURMA. 

much enlarged, the enlargement being due to either moisture 
or to the attacks of wood-peckers searching for the grubs. The 
holes were either widely scattered, only two or three appearing 
on the outside of a tree, or there were several closely adjacent 
to one another. A careful examination of the holes and the 
tunnels into which they led disclosed the fact that these latter 
invariably curved upwards soon after leaving the outside. As al- 
ready seen in the Saw Mill at Rangoon, the diameter of the tunnel 
was the same all the way up with the exception that the last 2 — z\ 
inches were slightly enlarged. 1 had noticed in the wood examined 
in Rangoon that thf. enlarged area was often lined with a layer of 
calcareous matter, but this was not the case with the galleries 
examined here. 

V Examination of Standing trees in the Mobnyin Reserve. 

{a) Dead Trees. 

Dead standing trees in the forest exhibit much the same appear- 
ance as the felled logs. The '■ bee-holes '' are to be seen on the 
outside often '■ weathered " and enlarged and are also to be found 
inside the timber when cut up, the end of the hole having been closed 
over by subsequent growth of wood. In no instance, however, have 
1 found fresh attacks, i.e., fresh ''bee-hole" borings, in dead trees; 
the holes in every case in this latter having all the appearance of 
having been made some time previously. 

(b) Girdled and. dying trees. 

It was perhaps but natural that in the first instance one should 
entertain the opinion that there might be some connection between 
the custom of girdling the green standing leak trees and leaving 
them several years in the forest before extraction and the " bee-hole " 
attacks. Whilst, however, my examinations showed me that stand- 
ing girdled dying trees contained the " bee-holes " both outside and 
also inside the wood, 1 found no evidence to prove that the holes in 
the wood were made by insects attacking the trees after they had 



A NOTE UPON THE " BEE-HOLE * BuHER OK TEAK IN BUKMA. 7 

been girdled and whilst the bast and sap wood were slowly dying. 
In the case oi the Sal tree in India, and in fail of probably the 
majority of trees, girdling standing trees in the forest would almost 
certainly be followed by various species of wood-boring insects at 
once depositing their eggs in or beneath the bark and the resultant 
grubs would feed at first in the dying bast and sap wood and then, 
as they grew older, tunnel directly into the heart wood. The teak, 
so far as my observations go, appears to be an exception to this 
rule. 

(c) Green Trees. 

It was when I turned my attention to the examination of green 
standing trees in the Mohnyin Reserve that 1 commenced to under- 
stand the real position of affairs and to make the first of a series of 
observations which have led to the discovery of the true author ol 
the '• bee-holes " in teak, of their mode of origin and of a considerable 
portion of the life history of the '' bee-hole" borer. 

I have already shown that the " bee-holes " arc to be found 
with their entire length and entrance (or exit) hole burn d 
deep in the heart wood of the tree. We have also seen that 
quite small trees (16-ycar old), as instanced in the Tharrawaddy 
Plantations, may have a " bee-hole " in the wood entirely covered up 
by several later layers of sap wood. This led to the possible 
assumption that green trees were attacked by the author of the 
''bee-hole " and observations in the fori .--t quickly showed that such 
was actually the case. Green trees showed the " bee-holes " on the 
outer surface of the bark in almost, every stage of formation and 
age : the hole newly gnawed to the mitside of the bark, from which 
sap was seen to be oozing and below which, either on projecting 
inequalities of the bark bem ath the hole, or at the foot of the. tree, 
saw dust and gnawed wood from the tunnel were to be found ; older 
holes with the outer bark closing over them, the size of the external 
hole still present depending upon the age of the tunnel beneath ; 
and finally trees in which the holes were entirely closed over, hut 
which still betrayed, by the presence of a dark coloured or black 
point on the outside bark, the existence of a "bee-hole" beneath. 



8 A NOIE UPON THE " HEK-IIOLK" BORER OK TF.AK IN BURMA. 

Once these outside evidences of the " bee-bole " have been fully 
recodified , the former presence or, as we shall see later, actual 
presence of this pest can be detected unerringly. 

A discovery of a most serious nature was made whilst examining 
the trees in plantations in this reserve. It was proved beyond a 
possibility of doubt that the insect attacks trees of all siz.es down to 
the youngest 2-year old sapling which contains at its base woody 
tissue. 

VI The nature of the Insect which causes the " Bee-hole." 

The discovery of fresh '' bee-holes " in green trees led to the 
narrowing down of the possible authors of the damage and on 
splitting up some logs selected from a badly attacked green tree 
standing in the forest J obtained the 1 ' bee-hole '' borer. It proved to 
be a large brightly marked caterpillar of the sub-order Hctcroccra 
or moth:, thus discrediting its popular name of " bee-hole " and 
disposing of the much more probable theories that the holes were 
the work o\ one of the boring beetles belonging to the families 
DuprCitidx or Cerambycidx. 



VII. — The method of attack as determined from inspections of green, girdled 

and dead trees. 

The egg is, 1 think, undoubtedly laid by the moth upon the bark,* 
or under a flake or ridge. If more than one egg is laid at anv 
one spot only one develops, or, if more than one. the young cater- 
pillars separate and bore into the bark at different spots. This i> 
borne out by the fact that only one insect is found occupying the 
"bee-hole." The young larva on hatching out bore, through the 

* Since writing this, whilst inspecting the Shwegyin Plantation on the Salween 
river in Tcnass?iim. a patch of eggs which may prove to I)* those of this insect 
was discovered on the stem of a green leak. These egg* were flat, roundish &nd 
yellow, some 150 in number and laid close together in a blackish gummy substance 
which glued then: on. Two moths had already issued from trees in this plantation. 
These egg* were taken on March 1 ith. 



A NOTE UPON THE ■' BEE-HOLE" BORER OF IKAK t.M Hl'RMA. o 

bark and feeds probably at first only in tin- bast, hut later on, when 
its mandibles (biting-jaws) have become stronger, it eats into the 
sap wood as well. It bores an irregular shaped gallery having 

several irregularly-radiating arms, the total length being usually about 
four inches, with a breadth of three inches. As the grub becomes 
older it eats down into the sap wood, the depressions in lite latter 
being deeper in the central part of the irregular shaped cavity. 
When full grown it bores into the heart wood and excavates .1 
tunnel which curves upwards, is about nine to thirteen inches in 
total length, and is slightly enlarged at its upper end, the enlarged 
portion being from 1 J to 2 inches in length. This tunnel appears 
to usually start from the centre' of the irregular depression, is of but 
slightly larger section than the body of the caterpillar and has the sjune 
width throughout, except at the upper end. The enlarged portion 
at the top is the pupating chamber and in it the caterpillar changes 
to the pupal or chrysalis stage, turning round so as to face down 
the hole before doing so. The tunnel is kept quite free of wood 
sawdust and excreta, these being ejected from it through a hob 
gnawed in the bark just over the entrance of the tunnel into the 
wood ; the hole really forming a prolongation of the latter, but 
separated by the deep irregular depression in the sap wood. 
Before finally pupating the caterpillar again crawls up the tunnel 
and spins a close firm taut silken mesh across the tunnel just below 
the spot at which it opens out into the depression in the sap wood. 
It then proceeds backwards up the tunnel and spins a second of 
these meshes just below the point where the gallery opens out into 
the wider pupal chamber. The damage this insect docs to the tree 
is then complete and the '' bee-hole " in the wood has been made. 
An examination of all trees containing '' bee-holes " on the outside 
will show the irregular depression in the sap wood. If the tree 
is dead, this depression may be considerably ' weathered,'' but it 
is always distinguishable. If the tree is green and the external 
hole is nearly closed up, on shaving off the bark at the spot the 
layers of bast gradually closing over the depression and hole will be 
disclosed and beneath these the irregular depression with the 
entrance to the tunnel at or near the centre. 



10 A MOTt: UPON THE " UKE-flOLH " BORER Ol TEAK IN UUKMA, 



VIII. Description of larva (caterpillar), pupa, chrysalis and moth. 

Larva. — A large robust caterpillar consisting of a head and twelve 
segments ; the latter swollen and distinct, skin shining with a satiny 
lustre. It tapers both anteriorly and posteriorly, the 12th or last 
segment being much smaller than the rest. Head small, shining, 
dark walnut-brown above and on sides ; mouth parts black. First 
thoracic segment (the segment following the head) shining, light 
walnut-brown dorsally, with a truncate ovalshaped patch behind set 
with asperities and protuberances (probably Lo enable the grub to 
push out wood-dust particles from the tunnel); 2nd segment white 
with three tubercles placed transversely on each side of the dorsal 
median line; rest of segments lo iitli inclusive satiny-while, with a 
broad transverse bright pink band on each, commencing just below 
the front edge of the segment and extending to about its middle ; a 
large brown spot (spiracle) with a pink centre on each of the seg- 
ments 2-1 1 (inclusive), just above the median lateral (side) line; 
12th segment small, pink in front and a dirty-brownish black behind. 
A round black spot above and below each spiracle. Four small brown 
spots dorsally on each segment; two in the centre of the pink band 
one on cither side of median line and the oilier two anteriorly on the 
while band set slightly laterally to the ones above them. These 
spots seem to partake of the nature of minute tubercles and may 
help t lie larva in its movements in the tunnel. Length \\ to 2 
inches. All the segments with the exception of the: 12th shining, 
with a satiny lustre. Uncler-surfacc satiny-white, as also are the three- 
pairs of front legs (on the first three segments behind head) and the 
abdominal ones, the latter with well-marked clasping pads. Under- 
surface is flat, upper con\ex. 

Pupa. — Stout, elongate, tapers slightly posteriorly. Chestnut- 
brown, darker at thoracic end ; antenna? and wings of future moth 
distinctly visible as raised lumps on the pupal skin at the upper end. 
Colour lighter posteriorly; the abdominal segments canary yellow 
beneath and at sides, with narrow bands of this colour marking the 
intervals of the segments. The spiracles prominent as brown spots 



A NOTE UPON THE "SEE-HOLE" BOREK (»■ ll.AK IN HIKMA. n 

on skies of abdominal segments. Under-surfacc lighter in colour, 
length i$ to 2{ inches. 

Moth.— A large motli with long and narrow wings The head 
thorax and body pale ochreous brown, more or less suffused with 
black ; patches of black scales at each siile of hinder portion of 
thorax. Fore wing pale oehrcous brown with blackish streaks and 
an irregular whitish patch in the. outer angle which tails oil in a 
series of decreasing spots. Hind wing fuscous, slightly marbled 
with black. Expanse of wings 4Jl.l1 inch. 

The moth does not appear to have been taken in Burma since 
llampson in the Fauna only gives the habitat as Sikkim ; Nias ; 
Ceram. 

IX Probable Life History. 

The egg is almost certainly laid upon the. bark of the tree prob- 
ably in the hot season before the monsoon bursts [vide footnote on 
]). 8). Tbt caterpillar probably hatches out within a short period 
and feeds as 1 have shown in the bast and subsequently on the sap 
wood, finally pupating in the interior of the wood. It is probable 
that it only spends the monsoon months (with perhaps a portion of 
the. preceding hot weather) in leeding and attaining its full size, and 
towards the commencement of the cold weather it tunnels into the 
tree. These conjectures are borne out by the fact that no half grown 
or smaller larva." have been found in the irregular depressions beneath 
the bark and therefore it would appear that the insect passes through 
the whole of its life cycle from egg to moth in a year. Since a number 
of larva: were found at the end of February at. the: top of the 
tunnels in the wood, but only one pupa, it appears that the cold 
weather is passed through in the larval stage in Upper Burma, 
perhaps partly in boring the pupating tunnel and chamber, and that 
the larva only changes to the pupal or chrysalid condition on the 
approach of (lie hot weather. I do not know as yet how long i;s 
spent in the pupal stage nor when the moth issues in Upper Burma, 
but the former is probably short, the latter issuing sometime during 
the hot weather. To enable the moth to issue, the pupa would work 
its way up the tunnel by means of the minute circles of spines situated 



12 A NOTE UPON THE "BEE-HOLf UUKER 01- TEAK IN BUKMA. 

on each of the abdominal segments, rupturing the mesh nets spun 
across the tunnel near its upper end and near the mouth in its 
progress, and projecting, for about half its length from the hole 
bored by the larva in the bark.* The moth probably issues at night 
and Hies and pairs at night. The life history will vary slightly in 
Upper and Lower Burma and again in Tenasserim. 

X Enemies. 

A:-, far as my present observations have been carried, the chief 
enemies of the " bee-holt " borer would seem to be \vood-pecl<ers. 1 
noted two species in Katha : the one blackish-green, the other 
greyish-green. 

They are both called Thit tank lauk by the Hurmans. These 
birds " tap " the " bee-hole '' tunnels by boring down through the 
wood, above the exit hole on the bark, until they reach the tunnel 
and the grub which is to Lie found at the end of it. They exhibit 

* Nntr {.— Since tht- above was written some teak areas and plantations on the 
Salvvccn River have bctTi visited in company with the Conservator. We inspected 
the Shwegyin plantation and sejrehed for the borer. Mi. Manson pointed out 
.something protruding from tht bark of one of the trees about eighteen inches up 
from the base. An examination at once disclosed the object to be an empty pupal 
CBse arid a closer examination enabled me to determine it as the pupal case of the " bee- 
hole " borer. It was in position as described above. The chrysalis case was quite 
fresh and the moth must have iisucd ■time time within the previous 48 hours. Another 
lsrgrr one, probably that of a female, was discovered in the plantation. The discovery 
points to the fart that the moths leaye the tiecs in Tenasserim as early a* the 
middle nt March nnd probably on through ;i portion of April. Since the rains corn 
menrc here in May, this was what might have been expected. I have already alluded 
to the fact thr?t a patch of what may prove to be the egt;s uf this insect was discovered 
on hark of one of the trees in this plantation. 

A'tirV J. — Portions of the stems of three teak trees containing living larva; and a 
pupa in situ in the *' bee-holes " were taken from the Mohnyin l''orest to Rangoon and 
from there on my departure from Burma a month later to Calcutta. My object was to 
endeavour to breed out some moths and thus to identify the insect which I was of 
opinion would preve to be a species of Dunmilus. This is always a difficult operation, 
since the wood as soon as cut commences to dry and the larva or pupa either dries up 
and dies or uwin^j to thr contraction the pupa is unable to make its way up the tunnel 
to allow the moth to escape. Mr. Nelson Anauidate, Depnty Superintendent, Indian 
Museum, kindly undertook to look after my specimens for me until my touring came 
to an end. I have received a communication from him informing me that a moth 
issued during the first days o£ June and proved to be QuemUut ctrawticm, Wlk. 



A NOTE UPON THE "BEE-HOtE* BORER OF IKAK IN BURMA. 13 

the most wonderful instinct in this operation, as they appear to 
know that the end of the tunnel will be between g and 12 inches 
above the exit hole on the bark and bore in accordingly at this 
distance. It is probable that these birds exert a considerable check 
upon the increase of the insect, bui their help in this respect can 
scarcely be called desirable, since they, in addition to often consi- 
derably enlarging the exit holes of the borers, drive other and 
larger holes into the wood, these holes being subsequently covered 
over and concealed by the growth ol Iresh outer layers of wooil or, 
owing to ''weathering," causing decay and rot to set up in the 
timber. 

XI.— Results of (he attack to the timber. 

Three- classes of damage are caused to the timber as a direct 
result of the attacks of this pest. 

(i7) Faults in the Timber. 
Since the caterpillar attacks and feeds in the bast and sap wood 
of green trees and that these trees; still continue their growth after 
the pest has matured and left by the exit hole, the deep irregular 
depressions in the sap wood become gradually covered over by 
succeeding layers of wood until they are completely buried within 
the timber. There is, however, often a fault between the super- 
imposed layers of the wood and the layers below them at Hie place 
where the irregular depression occurs, the intervening layers of 
wood having been eaten away by the caterpillar and a proper 
junction of the new layers not ha\ ing taken place. 

[b) T/ie " bcc-holes." 

It is scarcely necessary to describe these further. We. have 
already seen that their presence may be apparent on the outside of 
the timber in the form of the exit holes of the insect, or the tunnel 
and exit hole may have become entirely enclosed within the wood. 
In the case of badly attacked tn es, i.r , trees which have supported 
numlrf-rs of larvae in successive years almost all through their lives, 



,4 A NOTE UPON THI" " BEIMIOI.E " BORER OF TF.i\K IN BURMA. 

the timber is so riddled and contains so large a number of "bee- 
holes " and tunnels that it is almost entirely worthless for any pur- 
pose save that of firewood. The losses thus occasioned are serious 
and are of course aggravated by the fact that it is not always 
possible to tell whether a log is " bee-holed " or not. This latter 
would seem to be due to the fact that in some localities the insect 
confines itself to the younger trees, and thus by the time the tree 
has attained a felling size, the whole of the evidences of the former 
presence of this pest in the tree have become buried within the 
wood and will only become apparent when the log comes into the 
saw mill and is cut up. 

(c) Wood-peckers. 

Although these birds arc present in the forest in the guise of 
friends, their attacks on the trees are Lo be feared almost as much as 
those of the insect. We have seen that they bore conical-shaped 
holes down into the wood to get at the grubs and, although in this 
way they diminish the number of the latter which will reach 
maturity, the result of their action on the timber is serious, this being 
more especially the case with the younger trees. In the ease of 
these latter these large holes either become enclosed inside the 
wood and are thus hidden in what appears to be a fine sound log 
or they '' weather" badly and, under the influence of water and 
fungi, set up rot in the wood. In cither case their action is most 
detrimental lo the timber. 

XII. — Results of the attack in the Forest. 

{a) High natural Forest. 

Further observations are required before one can discuss with 
profit the real extent of the damage done by the insect in the 
Durman Teak Forests. From information already given me and 
from my own observations it appears to be much more plentiful in 
some localities than in others and in fact to appear to have had a 
preference for the trees of certain areas, whilst others are almost free 
from it. I say " lo have had " since the evidence which has been 



A NOTE UPON THE " BEB-HOLK" BORKR Of IRAK IN SURMA, , - 

gathered upon the " bee-hole '' borer in the past has been entirely 
taken from old trees in the forest (as evidenced by external exit 
holes) and sawn logs in the various mills. From this latter 
evidence it would appear that trees are rarely killed by the insects, 
since trees whoso timber has subsequently been found to be almost 
entirely riddled through right down to the heart (by successive 
insects over a long series of years) have been able to reach a great 
size and therefore age. 

I am at present engaged in obtaining statistics on the subject 
of the distribution of the pest as represented by the different degrees 
in which the forests arc infested, together with particulars as to the 
aspect, soil, rainfall, etc., of these localities. 

In the Mohnyin Reserve I have seen trees of inches diameter 
with as many as nine '' bee-holes " in the lower N foot of the bole; 
several of these had been subsequently enlarged by wood-peckers. 
In addition, there were also one or more large wood-pecker holes, 
made by the birds in extracting the grubs. It may be taken as 
certain that forests containing such evidences of the presence of tic 
pest will be found to have the timber of their old mature trees badly 
riddled. 

From observations made on logs in the Kado Timber Uepflt at 
Moulmein and information supplied it appears that areas in the 
Thaungyin Reserves of the Division of that name, and the Sinswe 
Reserve of the West Salwcen Division are badly infested with the 
borer. The Ataran Forests, on the other hand, appear to be com- 
paratively free from the insect. 

(6) Plantations. 

From the short investigations I have already been able to make 
upon the results of the attack of the caterpillar in plantations in the 
Mohnyin Reserve in Katha and in the Shvvegyin plantations on the 
Salween river, it is possible to state that this pest is, in localities 
where it is abundant, probably one of the most serious the Forester 
has to deal with at present in Burma. It will apparently attack 
saplings from two \ears uf age and upwards, and the state to which 



ig A NOTE UPON THE " nEF.-HOI.E " BORER OF TEAK IN BURMA. 

a plantation can be reduced by its attacks is almost incredible. The 
following is a description made of the present position of a portion 
of an 1 896 plantation in the Mohnyin Reserve. In this particular 
forest the insect appeared to be very abundant, and probably from 
40 to 50 per cent, (and I think the estimate is below the mark) of 
the trees in the area inspected showed the present attacks or results 
of past attacks of the caterpillar. Some of the young trees have 
several holes in them and in many cases wood-peckers have increased 
the size of these or bored fresh ones to get at the grubs: e.g., one 
tree had been attacked by three borers and in each instance a 
wood-pecker had bored in above the '' bee-hole " with the result 
that the stem already contains six holes, the tree being still under 
ten years of age. This portion of the plantation must, I think, 
already be looked upon as ruined by the insert, and yet I have been 
unable to find any reports of its attacks in the reserve journals. 
If the trees are allowed to remain on the ground, the holes will 
gradually become closed over and thus concealed within the wood. 
The timber of such trees will, however, be worthless. Several 
caterpillars were cut out of trees in this plantation. In another 
two-year olrl plantation in tin's forest a caterpillar was taken from 
the base of the stem or a young sapling, up the centre of which it 
had bored its pupating tunnel. 

In the Shwcgvin plantation on the Salween river the borer 
was found to be present. Fifteen comparatively fresh " bee-holes " 
were counted in the trees on this area and from evidences on the 
stems it appeared probable that the trees contained other closed 
over, or almost closed over, ones. Two empty fresh pupal cases 
were taken from trees. 

In plantations visited at Thaubya (1902) and Natchoung (i8K<), 
1891, 1900 and 1902) on the Ataran river no trace of the borer was 
visible, although a careful search was instituted. 

With such evidences of the powers of this pest for injury before 
one it may be suggested that careful statistics are required as to the 
localities where the insect is at present abundant, and that plantations 
in such localities should not be created unless the ncecs-ary constant 



A NOTE UPON THE " BEE-HOLE " BORER OF TF.AK IN BURMA. t ■* 

supervision required to keep (he insect from obtaining a footing in 
them is possible. 



XIII. — Proposed steps to be taken to clear the plantations. 

In the present state of the investigations into the habits and 
action of this pest (although when the observations in this note have 
been confirmed and the moth obtained* we shall know all that is 
required to endeavour to combat it practically) it is too earlv to say 
what measures can be taken to endeavour to reduce its numbers in 
the forests. We are in a position, however, to suggest certain steps 
which should be taken to clear it out of the plantations and to 
endeavour to keep it out in the future. It may be stated at once 
that constant supervision will be necessary since we have seen thai 
the pest does not apparently confine itself to any particular age or 
size of tree, the only desideratum being that the tree should contain 
a certain amount of hard wood into which the caterpillar can tunnel 
in order to pupate. This constant supervision will not be SO difficult 
to maintain, provided the establishment permits of it (and this must 
be prc-Mipposcd since it is useless forming the plantations only to 
have them ruined at the very outset by the borer), since I found that 
the Burma coolies employed at Mohnyin had a considerable 
knowledge of natural history and once they wen- shown w hat was 
required became quite adept at searching and finding trees contain- 
ing "bee-holes " with living larvae in them. It has been shown that 
the caterpillar feeds under the bark until full-grown and that on 
attaining full size it has to bore a hole through the bark to the 
outside so as to be able to eject through it (he sawdust resulting 
from its tunnelling operations in the wood. A careful inspection of 
the trees at this period would enable the position of boring larvae to 
be ascertained and they could be removed bejvre they had bored 
down into the wood. 

(ii) Again, it is probable that whilst the caterpillars are fee-ding 
under the hark their presence will be visible from the outside by 



• Vide fojtrute No Ion page 12. 



,8 A NOTE UPON THE " BEE-HOLE " BORER OF TEAK IN BURMA. 

sap oozing down on the bark from the spot at which they are 
working. If this proves to be the case, it will be possible to kill 
them off at a still younger stage. 

The above will mean that a close supervision over the plantations 
must be maintained through the rainy months, and whether this 
supervision has or has not been maintained can always be checked 
by visiting the plantations in the cold weather and seeing whether 
there are fresh " bee-holes " on the trees. Should this be found to 
be the ease, the supervision there has been slack. 

(iii) In the matter of badly infested plantations all badly attacked 
trees should be cut out ; this operation being carried ouL, however, 
in the cold weather when they will be certain to contain all the 
caterpillars from the eggs laid in the previous season. 

(iv) In localities where from the evidence in the forest the 
insect is known to be plentiful I would deprecate the formation of 
pure plantations of teak, it being probable that mixed ones would 
be much less liable to attack. 

(v) Some attention should be paid to the wood-peckers with 
the object of preventing them attacking infested trees in plantations. 
In the Mohnyin Reserve these birds were very plentiful, and the 
damage they are doing to the young trees is too serious to be 
disregarded. When Lliey attack the tree with the object of getting 
out the grub, the latter has committed all the damage he is going 
to do and therefore the wood-pecker, as far as the particular tree is 
concerned, only makes matters worse. In the interest of the timber 
it cannot be held that the bird counterbalances the evil it docs by 
the number of insects it destroys, thus preventing them coming to 
maturity and reproducing themselves. 



XIV — Further observations required in the Forest. 

Some of these have already been alluded to under XII. Amongst 
the most important is a confirmation, by officers stationed in different 
parts of Burma where "bee-hole" timber is plentiful, of the life 
hi-tory of this pest, as sketched above. 



A NOTE UPON THE "BEE-HOLE" BORER OF TEAK IN BURMA. ,<j 

An answer is also required, if possible, as to the reason for the 
state.d fact that the insect is more abundant in some localities than 
-others. How do these localities differ from neighbouring unaffected 
ones? A very carefid inspection) of all plantations in the country 
is necessary with a view to ascertaining whether they are attacked 
by the pest and, if infested, whether badly; for if the latter, thee 
are only serving as so many centres irom which the bisect will 
radiate outwards and spread into unaffected areas. 



XV. — Points in the life history requiring further observation. 

A confirmation of the lile history as ascertained in the Mohnyin 
Forest in Katha, and to a lesser extent in TenassertRt, is required 
"from officers in other parts of Burma, and in addition we require 
•to know — 

(i) When the moth leaves the tree in Burma (excluding Tenas- 
serim) and how long it lives. 

(2) Where it lays its eggs. Does it lay more than one? If 

so, are they laid singly or together ? If singly, are they 
laid on the same tree or on different ones i 

(3) When do the eggs hatch out? 

(4) How many months does the caterpillar spend- — 

(<?) feeding in the bast and sap wood ; 

[b) in boring the " bee-hole " (tunnel and pupating chamber) 

in the wood ; 
{c) in the pupating chamber before changing to the- chrysalis 

stage. 

(5) How long is spent in the chrysalis stage ? 

(5) The different localities in Burma in which the insect is to 
be found. 



G. 1. C. P. 0.— No. 93J B- & A.— i^7-tt°J.-i,7t».-P. M. M. 



3 a note ppo.m tiif: ■■ nr.F.-noi.P. " rsoRi'R of trak in Burma. 

the wood in the early days of Forest operations in Tonasscrim. In his 
Report on the Teak Forests of Temasserim Dr. II, Falconer, F.R.S., 
Superintendent of the Botanical Gardens, Calcutta, made the fallow- 
ing allusions to this subject as long ago as 1 85 i : — " The mixture ol 
this light dead timlier, with unseasoned logs which have lieen felled 
green and logs flawed with holes and clefts from the Thaungyin, in 
the shipments made to England is generally considered to have been 
the cause of the had repute into which the Tenassenni teak has 

fallen at home for shipbuilding' The two latter c ircumslanocs 

had more to do with the result than the first." "The tree during 
its growth (foes not seem to suffer much from the ravages of para- 
sitical insects. Captain Trenienheerc mentions that the stem is 
attacked by a beetle in (lie Thangyin which bores teredo-like holes. 
1 obsei ved no marks of such an insect in the Ataran Forest.--." 

Captain Guthrie. Superintendent of Fore-its in t he Tenasserim 
provinces, wrote in a report dated 20th June 1S45, " Of the Thaun- 
gyin teak 1 mav remark that I have seen it growing and thriving in 
every variety of locality ; it has generally the advantage of carry- 
ing its girth well to a great height, not tapering quickly; it appears 
to be somewhat, liable to small cells, isolated, but which appear in 
sawing up. 1 ' 

The presence ol these " bee-holes' in the wood has resulted in 
two serious drawbacks : — 

(1) Reduction in the amount of limber available for export 
owing to the trees from certain localities having been found to be 
badly "bee-holed." This results in smaller amounts being available 
in the home markets. 

(2) Serious losses to the merchant engaged in extracting the wood. 

Under the latter head 1 have been supplied with the following 
figures (at Moulmein) ; — 



Value of (fnoil sound tr.ik lo;,'. 24' x 5 middle jjirth f-ct- 
from bee-holes 
J)u. lit), uifh a few 1'fr- h.lt'S 

Da do. with numerous bre-tudcs . 

Do. do. nuirely riddled 

(The log would be ait up and sold ns firewood.) 



ii. 





ga S o 

40 o o 

700 



NOTF. I TON Till- ■ BFE-MOI.F. " HOKl'R OF TliAK IN Dl'RMA. 3 

Soon after my arrival in Burma I paid a visit to the Saw Mills 
of Messrs. Steel & Co. in Rangoon, where the manager very kindly 
showed me a number of attacked squares and, in fart, teak material 
of all sorts. An exceptionally badlv riddled square was cut up in 
order that the tunnels might be traced from ihe orifice opening out, 
on the outer surface to their extremities in the wood. 

Two points were ascertained : — 

(i) That the tunnel curved up the stem soon after entering and 
ended in a slightly wider chamber at its upper extre- 
mity. Its section was oval-elliptical. 

(ii) That the tunnel did not necessarily open on to the outside 
of the squares. In taking oil slabs with a circular saw 
it became apparent that tunnels both commenced anil 
ended within the wood its. If. 

ITom an examination of the tunnel it was at once apparent that 
although the work of an insert, it was not the work of one of the 
carpenter bees (Xy/ocopit). These lets usually work in colonies, the 
tunnels being placed closely adjacent and being invariably large 
in section and circular. Nor was it the work of a wood wasp 
(Sirex) ; the grub of the latter tunnels in a very irregular manner in 
the wood, the gallery running at various angles, and, in addition, 
there is alway an exit gallery bored straight from the pupal 
chamber to the outside. This reduced the matfi r to llirc. pro- 
bable groups. Two of beetles, BuprcsliJ.a and Ci riitnliycid.i and 
one of the II etc race ra or moths (the wood-boring families Cossirf.r, 
Arbeit d;c etc.). 

I'rom my examination ol the tunnels I was inclined jo think they 
were either Iluprestid or Hcterocorous. The difficulty, however, was 
thai the tunnels, though varying in size, were each individually of 
the same width throughout. In other words, the whole tunnel 
appeared to have been made by the full grown insect; whether in 
its larval or mature stage had yet to be ascertained. I < ould find 
no trace of the gradually increasing gallery made by a larva as it 
grows from its young to its full-grown condition ; nor did there* 
appear lobe any separate exit gallery. These facts rather led to the 



j A NOTE UPON THE "HEE-HOI.K" RORER OF TEAK IN BURMA. 

assumption that the insect was one of those which spend the whole 
of their grub stage (until full size is attained) feeding beneath the 
bark in the bast and sap wood, only boring into the wood to pupate, 
and this was a point to be evidently kept in view in studying the 
attack in the forest. The fact that the tunnels varied greatly in 
width was not of great importance since the individuals of many 
insects of one and the same species vary greatly in size, as also do 
the males and females of the same species. 

The second of the above points was of great importance since it 
seemed to indicate that the tree had been attacked whilst alive arid 
in a younger stage, the exit hole on the outside of the. stem having 
been subsequently covered out by later layets of wood. 



II Points to be studied. 

My examination of the timber in Messrs. Steel & Co.'s Saw 
Mill enabled mc to draw up the following questions which required 
answering from direct observations in the forest : — 

(i) The exact position on the tree and direction of — 

(n) the entrance hole ; 

(Zi) the main gallery ; 

(<-) the pupal chamber ; 

(d) the exit hole ; 

(2) Where the eggs are, laid. 

(3) Length of time spent in the larval or grub stage and where 

and how the larva feeds, 

(4) Length of time passed in the pupal or chrysalis stage and 

where this stage is passed. 

(5) At what time of the year the insect quits the tree and how. 

(6) The nature of the insect, whether wood wasp, carpenter bee, 

beetle (buprestid or longicorn) or a boring helerocerous 
(moth) caterpillar. 

(7) Arc green standing trees in the forest attacked ? 

(8) Are the trees only attacked after being girdled ? 



A NOTE UPON TIIK " HEK-HOl.l-: " BOKER OF llv\K IN Ill'RMA. 5 

(9) Are dead trees attae ked by the insect ? 
(10) At what age are the trees attacked ? 

III. — Tharrawaddy Teak plantation Thinnings. 

" Roc-holes'' in teak in the Tharrawaddy Division are said to lie 
l)V no means common. We found, however, what Mr. Troup, t lie 
Divisional Officer, considered to be an example of such in an 18S8 
plantation in the Kadin liilin Forest,. In the light of subsequent 
investigations I am now able to corroborate Mr. Troup. This 
plantation had been thinned last year and the thinned trees were 
lying in the. coupe, since the thinnings here are not sold. Whilst 
cutting up and examining one of these trees for Scolytida\ with one 
or two species of which the wood was being riddled, we came upon a 
cavity or tunnel in the stem and traced it up to what appeared to 
have been a pupating chamber of an insect, situated in the long axis 
of the tree in the centre of the heart wood. The top of the tunnel 
or former exit hole of the pest had three rings of s,ip wood super- 
imposed above it. It was therefore justifiable to suppose that the 
attack had been made upon the tree whilst still living, the entrance 
or exit hole, having been closed up by the subsequent growl h ol the 



tree 



IV. — Examination of Timber from the Mohnyin Reserve in the k'adu Depot, 

Katha Division. 

On my arrival at Kadu in the Kallia Division, Upper flurrua, 1 
examined a number of teak logs in the Depot and also some, stand- 
ing dead girdled trees. The logs had all tome from the Mohnyin 
Reserve, the teak trees of which were earning an unenviable 
notoriety owing to the number of " bee-holes " the timber contained. 
I found that a majority of the logs showed '' bee-holes " on the out- 
side as also sections of them un the cut ends. The holes were 
usually oval-elliptical in shape and appeared to vary greatly in size. 
Many were badly "weathered," the opening on the outside being 



6 A NOTt UH)N T1IK "BEE-HOLE" BOKliR Of TEAK IN UL'RMA. 

much enlarged, the enlargement being due to either moisture 
or to the attacks of woGd-peekers searching for the grubs. The 
holes were either widely scattered, onlv two or three appearing 
on tht outside of a tret-, or there were several closely adjacent 
Lo one another. A careful examination of the holes and the 
tunnels into which they led disclosed the fact that these latter 
invariably curvtd upwards soon after leaving the outside. As al- 
ready .seen in the .Saw Mill at Rangoon, the diameter of the tunnel 
was the same all the way up with the exception that the last 2— 2k 
inches were slightly enlarged. 1 had noticed in the wood examined 
in Rangoon that this enlarged area was often lined with a layer of 
calcareous matter, but this was not the case with the galleries 
examined here. 

V. — Examination of Standing trees in the Mohnyin Reserve. 

[n) Dead Trees. 

Dead standing trees in the forest exhibit much the same appear- 
ance as the felled logs. The " bee-holes " are to lie seen on the 
Outside often '' weathered " and enlarged and are also to be found 
inside the timber when cut up, the end of the hole having been closed 
over by subsequent growth of wood. In no instance, however, have 
1 found fresh attacks, i.e., fresh '' bee-hole '' borings, in dead trees ; 
the holes in every ease in this latter having all the appearance of 
having been made some time previously. 

(4) Girdled and dying trees. 

It was perhaps but natural that in the first insLanee one should 
entertain the opinion that there might be some connection between 
the custom of girdling the green standing teak trees and leaving 
them several years in the forest before extraction and the " bee-hole " 
attacks. Whilst, however, my cKaminations showed mc that stand- 
ing girdled dying trees contained the '' bee-holes '' both outside and 
also inside the wood, 1 found no evidence to prove that the holes in 
the wood were made by insects attacking the trees after they had 



A NOTE UPON THE " BEE-HOLE ■• liOREK OP TEAK IN Bt'KMA. 7 

been girdled and whilst the bast and sap wood were slowly dying. 
In the case of the Sal tree in India, and in fact of probably the 
majority of trees, girdling- standing trees in the forest would almost 
certainly be followed by various species of wood-boring insects at 
once depositing their eggs in or beneath the bark and the resultant 
grubs would feed at first in the dying bast and sap wood and then, 
as they grew older, tunnel directly into the heart wood. The leak, 
so far as my observations go, appears to be an exception to this 
rule. 

(c) Green Trees. 

It was when I turned my attention to the examination of green 
standing trees in the Mohnyin Reserve that 1 commenced to under- 
stand the real position of affairs and to make the first, of a series of 
observations which have led to the discover} 1 of the true author ol 
the '' bee-holes " in leak, of their mode of origin and of a considerable 
portion oi the life history of the " bee-hole" borer. 

1 have already shown that the " bee-holes " are lo be found 
with their entire length and entrance (or exit) hole buried 
deep in the heart wood of the tree. We have also seen that 
quite small trees (iG-year old), as instanced in the Tharrawaddy 
Plantations, may have a " bee-hole " in the wood entirely covered up 
by several later layers of sap wood. This led to the possible 
assumption that green trees were attacked by the author of the 
''bee-hole" ami observations in the forest quickly showed that such 
was actually the case, drccn trees .showed the " hee-holc* " on t he- 
outer surface of the bark in almost every stage of formation and 
age ; the hole newly gnawed to the outside of the bark, from whieh 
sap was seen lo be oozing and below whieh, either on projecting 
inequalities of ihe bark beneath ihe hole, or at the fool of the tree, 
saw dust and gnawed wood from the tunnel were lo be found ; older 
holes with the outer bark closing over them, the size of the external 
hole stilt present depending upon the age of the tunnel beneath ; 
and finally trees in whieh the holes were entirely closed over, but 
which still betrayed, by the presence of a dark coloured or black 
point on Ihe outside back, the existence of a " bee-hole " beneath. 



8 A NOTE UPON THE "HEE-HOI.E" BOKliK OK TEAK IN LtUriMA. 

Once these outside evidences of the " bee-hole " have been fully 
recognised, the former presence or, as we shall see later, actual 
presence of this pest can be detected unerringly. 

A discovery of a most serious nature was made whilst examining 
the trees in plantations in this reserve. It was proved beyond a 
possibility of doubt that the insect attacks trees of all sizes down to 
the youngest 2-year old sapling which contains at its base woods- 
tissue. 

VI The nature of the Insect which causes the "Bee-hole." 

The discovery of fresh " bee-hole-; " in green trees led to the 
narrowing down of the possible authors of the damage and on 
splitting up some logs selected from a badly attacked green tree 
standing in the forest 1 obtained the " bee-hole " borer. It proved to 
be a large brightly marked caterpillar of the sub-order Hctcrocira 
or moths, thus discrediting its popular name of " bee-hole " and 
disposing of the much more probable theories that the holes were 
the work of one of the boring beetles belonging to the families 
Biiprc%tid:v or Ccrambycidx. 



VII. — The method of attack as determined from inspections of Rreen. girdled 

and dead trees. 

The egg is, 1 think, undoubtedly laid by the moth upon the bark,* 
or under a flake or ridge. If more than one egg is laid at anv 
one spot only one develops, or, if more than one, the voung eater- 
pillars separate and bore into the bark at different spots. This is 
borne out by the fact that, only one insect is found occupying the 
"bee-hole." The young larva on hatching out bores through the 

•Since writing this, whilst inspecting the Shwcgvin Plantation on the Salween 
river in Tcnnmsrim, ■> patch of eggs which luty prove to be those ot this insect 
was discovered on the stem of a gireen teak. These eggs, were flat, roundish and 
YffHow, some 150 in number and laid close together in a blackish gummy substance 
which glued them on. Two moths had already issued from trees in this plantation. 
These eggt were taken on March 1 ilh. 



A NOTE UPON THE "BEE-HOLE" BORER or 1KAK IN BURMA. g 

bark and feeds probably at lirst only in the bast, but later on, when 
its mandibles (biting-jaws) have become stronger, it cats into the 
sap wood as well. It bores an irregular shaped gallery having 
several irregularly-radiating arms, the total length being usually about 
four indies, with a breadth of three inches. As the grub becomes 
older it eats down into the sap wood, the depressions in the latter 
being deeper in the central part of the irregular shaped cavity. 
When full grown it bores into the heart wood and excavates a 
tunnel which curves upwards, is about nine to thirteen inches in 
total length, and is slightly enlarged at its upper end, the enlarged 
portion being from ] J to 2 inches in length. This tunnel appears 
to usually start from the centre of the irregular depression, is of hut 
slightly larger section than the body of the caterpillar and has the same 
width throughout,, except at the upper end. The enlarged portion 
at the top is the pupating chamber and in it the caterpillar changes 
to the pupal or chrysalis stage, turning round so as to face down 
the hole before doing so. The tunnel is kept quite free of wood 
sawdust and excreta, these being ejected from it through a hole 
gnawed in the bark just over the entrance of the tunnel into the 
wood ; the hole really forming a prolongation of the latter, but 
separated by the dee]) irregular depression in the sap wood. 
Hefore finally pupating the caterpillar again craw Is up the tunnel 
and spins a close firm taut silken mesh across the tunnel just below 
the spot at which it opens out into the depression in the sap wood. 
It then proceeds backwards up the tunnel and spins a second of 
these meshes just below the point where the gallery opins out into 
the wider pupal chamber. The damage this insect doe:, to the tree 
is then complete and the '' bee-hole " in the wood has been made. 
An examination of all trees containing ''bee-holes" on the outside 
will show the irregular depression in the sap wood. If the tree 
is dead, this depression may be considerably ' weathered," but it 
is always distinguishable. If the tree is green and the external 
hole is nearly closed up, on shaving off the bark at the spot the 
layers of bast gradually closing over the depression and hole will be 
disclosed and beneath these the irregular depression with the 
entrance to the tunnel at or near the centre. 



I0 A (VO'IK (.'('ON THE " [IKE-HOLE " UOKL'K Ol" TEAK IN ULRMA. 



VIII. Description of larva (caterpillar), pupa, chrysalis and moth. 

Larva. — A large robust, caterpillar consisting of a head and twelve 
segments; the latter swollen and distinct, skin sinning with a satiny 
lustre. It tapers both anteriorly and posteriorly, the 12th or last 
segment being much smaller than the rest. Head small, shining, 
dark walnut-brown above and on sides ; mouth parts black. First 
thoracic segment (the segment, following the head) shining, light 
walnut-brown dorsally, with a truncate ovalshapcd patch behind set 
with asperities and protuberances (probably to enable the grub to 
push out wood-dust particles from the tunnel); 2nd segment white 
with three tubercles placed transversely on c;irh side ol the dorsal 
median line; rest, of segments to 1 ith inclusive satiny-white, with a 
broad transverse bright pink band on each, commencing just below 
the front edge of the segment and extending to about its middle ; a 
lar^c brown spot (spiracle) with a pink centre on each of the seg- 
ments a- 1 1 (inclusive), just above the median lateral (side) line; 
12th segment small, pink in front and a dirty-brownish black behind. 
A round black spot above and below each spiracle. Four small brown 
spots dorsally on each segment; two in the centre of the pink band 
one on cither side of median line and the other two antcriorlv on the 
white band set slightly laterally to the ones above them. These 
spots seem to partake of the nature of minute tubercles and may 
help the larva in its movements in lire tunnel. Length \\ to 2 
inches. All the segments with the exception of the 12th shining, 
with a satiny lustre. Under-surface satiny-white, as also are the three 
pairs of front legs (on the first three segments behind head) and the 
abdominal ones, the latter with well-marked clasping pads. Under- 
surface is flat, upper convex. 

Pupa. — Stout, elongate, tapers slightly posteriori} - . Chestnut- 
brown, darker at thoracic end ; antenna.' and wings of fuLurc moth 
distinctly visible as raised lumps on the pupal skin at the upper end. 
Colour lighter posteriorly; the abdominal segments canary yellow 
beneath and al sides, with narrow bands of this colour marking the 
intervals of the segments. 'The spiracles prominent as brown spots 



A NOTlf I 'PON 'J III-: -HEK-HUi.K" BOKER 01- TKAK IN IHKMA. j i 

on sides of abdominal segments. Under-surfaco lighter in colour, 
length ii (o z{ inches. 

Meik,*- A large moth with long and narrow wings The head 
thorax and body pale ochreous brown, more or less suffused with 
black ; patches of black scales at each side of hinder portion of 
thorax. Fore wing pale ochreous brown with blackish streaks and 
an irregular whitish patch in the, outer angle which tails oK in a 
series of decreasing spots. Hind wing fuscous, slightly marbled 
with black. Fxpanse of wings 4 ( '. t h inch. 

The moth does not appear to have been taken in Burma since 
Ilampson in the Fauna only gives Hie habitat as Sikkim ; Nias; 
Coram. 

IX Probable Life History. 

The egg is almost certainly laid upon the bark of the tree prob- 
ably in the hot season before the monsoon bursts {vide footnote on 
]). 8). The caterpillar probably hatches oul within a short period 
and leecls as I have shown in the bast and subsequently on flic- sap 
wood, finally pupating in the interior of the wood. It is probable 
that il only spends the monsoon months (with perhaps a portion of 
the preceding hot weather) in feeding and attaining its full size, and 
towards the commencement of the cold weather it tunnels into the 
tree. These conjectures are borne out by the fact that no hall grown 
or smaller larva: have been found in the irregular depressions beneath 
tin: bark and therefore it would appear that the insect passes through 
the whole of its life cycle from egg to moth in a year. Since a number 
of larva- were found at the end of February at the (op of the 
tunnels in the wood, but only one pupa, it appears thai the. cold 
weather is passed through in the larval stage in Upper Burma, 
perhaps partly in boring the pupating tunnel and chamber, and that 
the larva only changes to the pupal or ehrysalid condition on the 
approach of the hoL weather. I do not know as yet how long is 
spent in the pupal stage nor when the moth issues in Upper Burma, 
but the former is probably short, the latter issuing sometime during 
the hot weather. To enable the moth to issue, the pupa would work- 
its way up the tunnel by means of the minute circles of spines situated 



I2 A NOTE UPON TMIi " UKt-HOl.li " BORER 01 TliAK IN ULKMA. 

on each of the abdominal segments, rupturing the mesh nets .spun 
across the tunnel near its upper end and near the mouth in its 
progress, and projecting, for about half its length from the hole 
bored by the larva in the bark.* The moth probably issues at night 
and flies and pairs at night. The life history will vary slightly in 
Upper and Lower Burma and again in Tenasserim. 

X Enemies. 

As far as my present observations haw: been carried, I lie chief 
enemies of I he " bee-hole" borer would seem to be wood-peckers. I 
noted two species in Katha : the one blackish-green, the other 
greyish-green. 

They are both called Thil lank I auk by the Rurmans. These 
birds " tap " the " bee-hole '' tunnels by boring down through the 
wood, abene the exit hole on the bark, until they reach the tunnel 
and the grub which is to be found at the I'nd of it. They exhibit 

* i\'nir 7. — Sinct- the Above was wiitten some teak area--, and plantations on the 
Sal wees Kivcr have been visited in company with the Conservator. Ws impeded 
the Shwcgyin plantation and searched for the bofor, Mi. Mansoti pointed out 
"•nTiiething piolruding from the bark of one of the tree-, about eighteen iridic up 
from the basr. An examination at once disclosed the object to be an empty pupal 
case and a closet examination enabled me to determine it ay the pupal rase of the " bee- 
hole. " borer. It was in position as described above. The chrysalis rase was quite 
fresh and the moth must have issued some time within the previous 48 hours. Another 
larger one, probably that of a female, was discoveicd in the plantation. The clir-coverv 
points lo the fart that the moths leave the trec> in Tenasserim as early »i the 
middle of March and probably on through a portion of April. Sine the rains com- 
mence here in May, this was what might have been expected. I have already alluded 
to the fact that a patch of what may prove to be the eggs of this insect was discovered 
on bark of one of the trees in this plantation. 

Nt'tf 2. — Portions uf the stems of three teak trees containing living larva- anil a 
pupa 111 sttu in the '' bee-holes " were taken from the Mohnyin Korest to Rangoon and 
from there on my departure From Burma a month later to Calcutta. My object was to 
endeavour 10 breed out some moths and thus to identify the insect which 1 was ot 
opinion would prevc to be a species of Dunmittts. This is always a difficult opcraCon. 
since the wood as soon as cut commences to dry and the larva or pupa either dries up 
and dies or owing to the contraction the pupa is unable to make its way up the tunnel 
to allow the moth to escape. Mr. Nelson Anandale, Deputy Superintendent, Indian 
Museum, kiiuily undertook to look after my specimens for rne until my touring came 
to ~m en. I. 1 have received a communication from him informing me that a moth 
issued during the first dajfs o( June and proved to be Duumitui, crramicltl, Wlk. 



A NOTF. UPON THE "BEE-HOLE " BORER OF IKAK IN BURMA. 13 

the most wonderful instinct in this operation, as they appear to 
know that the end ol the tunnel will he between g and 12 inches 
above the exit hole on the bark and bore in accordingly at this 
distance. It is probable that these birds exert a considerable check 
upon the increase of the insect, but their help in this respect can 
scarcely be called desirable, since they, in addition to often consi- 
derably enlarging the exit holes of the borers, drive other and 
larger holes into the wood, these holes being subsequently covered 
over and concealed by the growth of (roll outer layers of wood or, 
owing to '•weathering'," causing decay and rot to set up in the 
timber. 

XI.— Results of the attack to the timber. 

Three classes of damage arc caused to the timber as a direct 
result ol tl'.e attacks of this pest. 

(it) Faults in the Timber. 
Since the caterpillar attacks and feeds in the bast and sap wood 
of green trees and that these trees still continue their growth after 
the pest has matured and left by the exit hole, the deep irregular 
depressions in the sap wood become gradually covered over by 
succeeding layers of wood until they are completely buried within 
tin' timber. There is, however, often a fault between the super- 
imposed layers of the wood and the layers below them at the place 
where the irregular depression occurs, the intervening layers of 
wood having been eaten away by the caterpillar and a proper 
junction of the new layers not Inning taken place. 

(//) The " bcc-holcs." 

It is scarcely necessary to describe these further. We have 
already seen that their presence mav be apparent on the outside of 
the timber in the form of the exit holes of the- insect, or the tunnel 
and exit hole nia\ have become entirely enclosed within the wood. 
In the case of badly attacked trees, i.e , tree;, which have supported 
numbers of larvae in successive years almost all through their lives, 



1 4 A NOTR UPON THR "RF.E-HOLK" BORER OF TEAK IN BIRMA. 

the timber is so riddled and contains so large a number of "bee- 
holes" and tunnels that it is almost entirely worthless for any pur- 
pose save that of firewood. The losses thus occasioned are serious 
and are of course aggravated by the fact that it is not always 
possible to tell whether a log is " bee-holed " or not. This latter 
would seem to be due to the fact that in some localities the insect 
confines itself to the younger trees, and thus by the time the tree 
has attained a felling size, the whole of the evidences of the former 
presence of this pest in the tree have become buried within the 
wood and will only become apparent when the log comes into the 
saw mill and is cut up. 

[c) Wood-peckers. 

Although these birds arc present in the forest in the guise of 
friends, their attarks on the trees are to be feared almost as much as 
those of the insect. We have seen that they bore conical-shaped 
hole; down into the wood to gel at the grubs and, although in this 
way they diminish the number of the latter which will reach 
maturity, the result of their action on the timber is serious, this being 
more especially the case with the younger trees. In the case of 
these latter these large holes cither become enclosed inside the 
wood and are thus hidden in what appears to be a fine sound log 
or they '' weather" badly and, under the influence of water and 
fungi, set up rot in the wood. In either case their action is most 
detrimental to the timber. 

XII Results of the attack in (he Forest. 

{a) High natural Forest. 

Further observations are required before one cm discuss with 
profit the real extent of the damage done by the insect in the 
Durman Teak Forests. From information already given me and 
from my own observations it appears to be much more plentiful in 
some localities than in others and in fact to appear to have had a 
preference for the trees of certain areas, whilst others are almost free 
from it. I say " to have had " since the evidence which has been 



A NOTE UPON THE "BEE-HOI.K" BORER OF TEAK IN BURMA. ,r 

gathered upon the "bee-hole '' borer in the past has been entirely 
taken from old trees in the forest (as evidenced by external exit 
holes) and sawn logs in the various rnills. From this latter 
evidence it would appear that trees are. rarely killed by the insects, 
since trees whose timber has subsequently been found to be almost 
entirely riddled through right down to the heart (by successive 
insects over a long series 01 vears) have been able to reach a great 
size and therefore age. 

I am at present engaged in obtaining statistics on the subject 
of the distribution of the pest as represented by the different degrees 
in which the forests are infested, together with particulars as to the 
aspect, soil, rainfall, etc., of these localities. 

In the Mohnyin Reserve I have seen trees of incites diameter 
with as many as nine ''bee-holes" in the lower t? foot of the bole; 
several ul these had been subsequently enlarged by wood-peckers. 
In addition, there were also one or more large wood-pecker holes, 
made by the birds in extracting the grubs. It may be taken as 
certain thai forests containing such evidences of the presence of the 
pest will be found to have the timber of their old mature trees badly 
riddled. 

From observations made on lo;>s in the Kado Timber DejxDl at 
Moulmcin and information supplied it appears that area.s in the 
Thaungyin Reserves of the Division of that name, and the Sinswe 
Reservc of the West Sal ween Division are badly infested, with the 
borer. The Ataran Forests, on the other hand, appear to be com- 
paratively free from the insect. 

(fi) Plantations. 

From the short investigations 1 have: already been able to make 
upon the results of the attack of the caterpillar in plantations in the 
Mohnyin Reserve in Katha and in the Shwegyin plantations on th« 
Salvveen river, it is possible to stale that this pest is, in localities 
where it is abundant, probably one of the most serious the Forester 
has to deal with at present in Burma. It will apparently attack 
saplings from two years of age and upwards, and the state to which 



,6 A NOTE UPON THK "nEE-HOLK " BORER OF TEAK IN BURMA. 

a plantation can be reduced by its attacks is almost incredible. The 
following is a description made of the present position of a portion 
of an i 896 plantation in the Mohnvin Reserve. In this particular 
forest the insect appeared to be very abundant, and probably from 
40 to 50 per cent, (and 1 think the estimate is below the mark) of 
the trees in the area inspected showed the present attacks or results 
of past attacks of the caterpillar. Some of the young trees have 
several holes in them and in many cases wood-peckers have increased 
the size, of these or bored fresh ones to get at the grubs: e.g.- one 
tree had been attacked by three borers and in each instance a 
wood-pecker had bored in above the " bee-hole " with the result 
that the stem already contains six holes, the tree being still under 
ten years of age. This portion of the plantation must, 1 think, 
already be looked upon as ruined by the insect, and yet I have been 
unable to find any reports of its attacks in the reserve journals. 
If the trees arc allowed to remain on the ground, the holes will 
gradually become closed over and thus concealed within the wood. 
The timber of such trees will, however, be worthless. Several 
caterpillars were cut out of trees in this plantation. In another 
two-year old plantation in this forest a caterpillar was taken from 
the base of the stem of a young sapling, up the centre of which it 
had bored its pupating tunnel. 

In the Shwegvin plantation on the Sal ween river the borer 
was found to be present. Fifteen comparatively fresh '' bee-holes " 
wen- counted in the trees on this area and from evidences on the 
stems it appeared probable that the trees contained other closed 
over, or almost closed over, ones. Two empty fresh pupal cases 
were taken from trees. 

In plantations visited at Thaubya (1902) and Natchoung (1889, 
1891, 1900 and 1902) oTi the Ataran river no trace of the borer was 
visible, although a careful search was instituted. 

With such evidences of the powers of this pest for injury before 
one it may be suggested that careful statistics arc required as to the 
localities where the insect is at present abundant, and that plantations 
in such localities should not be created unless the necessary constant 



A NOTE UPON THE " BEE-IIOLE " BORER OF TEAK IN BURMA. i- 

supervision required to keep the insect from obtaining a footing m 
tliem is possible. 



XIII — Proposed steps to be taken to clear the plantations. 

In the present state of the investigations into the habits and 
action of this pest (although when the observations in this note have 
been confirmed and the moth obtained* we shall know all that is 
required to endeavour to combat it practically) it is too early to say 
what measures can be taken to endeavour to reduce it s numbers in 
the lorc^ts. We are in a position, however, to suggest: certain steps 
which should be taken to clear it out of the. plantations anil to 
endeavour to keep it out in the. future. It may he slated a! once 
that constant supervision will be necessary since we have seen that 
the pest does not apparently confine, itself to any particular age or 
size of tree, the only desideratum being that the tree should contain 
a certain amount o( hard wood into which the caterpillar can tunnel 
in order to pupate. This constant supervision will not be *o difficult 
to maintain, provided the establishment permits of it (and this must 
be pre-Hipposed since it is useless forming the plantations only to 
have them ruined at the very outset by the borer), since 1 found that 
the Burma coolies employed at Mohuyin had a considerable 
knowledge of natural history and once, they were shown what was 
required became quite adept at searching and finding trees contain- 
ing "bee-holes " with living larvae in them. It has been shown that 
the caterpillar feeds under the bark until full-grown and (hat on 
attaining full size it has to bore a hole through the bark to the 
outside so as to be able to eject through it the sawdust resulting 
from its tunnelling operations in the wood. A careful inspection of 
the trees at this period would enable the position of boring farvje to 
be ascertained and they could be removed hejere they had bored 
down into the wood. 

(ii) Again, it is probable that whilst the caterpillars are feeding 
under the bark their presence will be visible from the outside by 



Vid<- foslnjte No 2 on pige 13. 



1 8 A NOTE UPON THE " BEE-HOLE " BORER OF TEAK IN BURMA. 

sap oozing down on the bark from the spot at which they are 
working. If this proves to be thecuse, it will be possible to kilt 
them off at a still younger stage. 

The above will mean that a close supervision over the plantations 
must be maintained through the rainy months, and whether this 
supervision has or has not been maintained can always be checked 
by visiting the plantations in the cold weather and seeing whether 
there are fresh " bee-holes " on the trees. Should this be found to 
be the case, the supervision there lias been slack. 

(iii) In the matter of badly infested plantations all badly attacked 
trees should be cut out ; this operation being carried ouL, however, 
in the cold weather when they will be certain to contain all the 
caterpillars from the eggs laid in the previous season. 

(iv) In localities where from the evidence in the forest the 
insect is known to be plentiful I would deprecate the formation of 
pure plantations of teak, it being probable that mixed ones would 
"be much less liable to attack. 

(v) Some attention should be paid to the wood-peckers with 
the object of preventing them attacking infested trees in plantations. 
•Jn the Mohnyin Reserve these birds were very plentiful, and the 
damage they are doing to the young trees is Loo serious to be 
disregarded. When they attack the tree with the object of getting 
out the grub, the latter has committed all the damage he is going 
to do and therefore the wood-pecker, as far as the particular tree is 
concerned, only makes matters worse. In the interest of the timber 
it cannot be held that the bird counterbalances the evil it does by 
the number of insects it destroys, thus preventing them coming to 
maturity and reproducing themselves. 



XIV — Further observations required in the Forest. 

Some of these have already been alluded to under XII. Amongst 
the most important is a confirmation, by officers stationed in different 
parts of Burma where "bee-hole" timber is plentiful, of the life 
history of this pest, as sketched above. 



ilw 9 



A NOTE UPON THE "BEE-HOLE" BORER OF TtAK IN BURMA. 



»9 



An answer is also required, if possible, as to the reason lor the 
stated fact that the insect is more abundant in some localities than 
•others. How do these localities differ from neighbouring unaffected 
-ones? A very careful inspection of all plantations in the country 
is necessary with a view to ascertaining whether they are attacked 
by the pest and, if infested, whether badly ; lor if the latter, they 
are only serving as so many centres from which the insect will 
radiate outwards and spread into unaffected areas. 



XV. — Points in the life history requiring further observation. 

A confirmation of the life history as ascertained in the Mohnyin 
Forest in Katha, and to a lesser extent in Tenasseriin, is required 
from officers in other parts of Burma, and in addition we require 
■to know — 

(1) When the moth leaves the tree in Burma (excluding Tcnas- 

serim) and how long it lives. 

(2) Where it lays its eggs. Does it lay more than One? II 

so, are they laid singly or together? If singly, are they 
laid on the same tree or on different ones? 

(3) When do the eggs hatch out? 

(4) How many months does the caterpillar spend — 

{a) feeding in the bast and sap wood ; 

{(<) in boring the " bee-hole " (tunnel and pupating chamber} 

in the wood ; 
(c) in the pupating chamber before changing to the chrysalis 
stage. 
[$) How long is spent in the chrysalis stage? 
(6) The different localities in Burma in which the insect is to 
be found. 



G. 1. C. P. .— No. 935 R. & A.— i9-7-i4oj.-i,?oo.-l\ M, M. 



U A, S. BAN'GALOSL 
UNIVERSITY LILRARY. 

3 1 MA.I 



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